Chart of milk products and production relationships, including milk The fat content of milk is the proportion of milk, by weight,:266 made up by butterfat. The fat content, particularly of cow's milk, is modified to make a variety of products. The fat content of milk is usually stated on the container, and the colour of the label or milk bottle top varied to enable quick recognition. Health and nutrition Fat has more nutritional energy per cup, but researchers found that in general low fat milk drinkers do absorb less fat, and will compensate for the energy deficit by eating more carbohydrates.
They also found that the lower milk fat drinkers also ate more fruits and vegetables, while the higher milk fat drinkers also ate more meat and sweets. Nutrition intake between whole milk drinkers and skimmed or low fat drinkers is different. An analysis of a survey done by the U. S. Department of Agriculture showed that consumers of reduced or low fat milk had greater intake of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber compared to the group of whole milk drinkers, yet zinc, vitamin E, and calcium were all under consumed in each group.
The conclusion was that the whole milk drinkers were more likely to choose foods that were less micronutrient-dense, which resulted in their less healthful diets. Methods for reducing fat content To reduce the fat content of milk, e.g. for skimmed or semi-skimmed milk, all of the fat is removed and then the required quantity returned. The fat content of the milk produced by cows can also be altered, by selective breeding and genetic modification.
For example, scientists in New Zealand have bred cows that produce skimmed milk (less than 1% fat content). Methods of detecting fat content Milk's fat content can be determined by experimental means, such as the Babcock test or Gerber Method. Before the Babcock test was created, dishonest milk dealers could adulterate milk to falsely indicate a higher fat content. In 1911, the American Dairy Science Association's Committee on Official Methods of Testing Milk and Cream for Butterfat met in Washington DC with the U.
S. Bureau of Dairying, the U.S. Bureau of Standards and manufacturers of glassware. Standard specifications for the Babcock methodology and equipment were published as a result of this meeting. Improvements to the Babcock test have continued. Terms for fat content by country The terminology for different types of milk, and the regulations regarding labelling, varies by country and region.
Canada In Canada "whole" milk refers to creamline (unhomogenized) milk. "Homogenized" milk (abbreviated to "homo" on labels and in speech) refers to milk which is 3.25% butterfat (or milk fat). There are also skim, 1%, and 2% milk fat milks. Modern commercial dairy processing techniques involve first removing all of the butterfat, and then adding back the appropriate amount depending on which product is being produced on that particular line.
United States Fat content by Weight U.S. terminology 69% Butter 45% Manufacturer's cream 36% Heavy whipping cream 30% Whipping cream or light whipping cream 25% Medium cream 18–30% Light cream, coffee cream, or table cream 10.5–18% Half and half 3.25% Whole milk or regular milk 2% 2% milk or reduced fat milk  1% 1% milk or low fat milk  0–0.5% Skim milk or nonfat milk  In the USA, skim milk is also known as nonfat milk, due to USDA regulations stating that any food with less than ½ gram of fat per serving can be labelled "fat free".
 In the U.S. and Canada, a blended mixture of half cream and half milk is called half and half. Half and half is usually sold in smaller packages and used for creaming coffee and similar uses. United Kingdom Three main varieties of milk by fat content are sold in the UK, skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk. Semi-skimmed is by far the most popular variety, accounting for 63% of all milk sales. Whole milk follows with 27% and then skimmed with 6%.
 Until 1 January 2008, milk with butterfat content outside the ranges defined by the European Commission could not legally be sold as milk. This included 1% milk, meaning varieties with 1% butterfat content could not be labelled as milk. Lobbying by Britain has allowed these other percentages to be sold as milk. Since the change in regulation, Sainsbury's has launched a 1% variety. Butterfat content UK Terminology 5.
5% Channel Island milk or breakfast milk  3.5% Whole milk or full fat milk  1.5–1.8% Semi-skimmed milk  1% 1% milk Less than 0.3% Skimmed milk  See also Milk Butterfat Cream References ^ Duyff, Roberta Larson (2006). American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide (revised and updated 3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-04115-4. ^ Lee HH, Gerrior SA, Smith JA (1998).
"Energy, macronutrient, and food intakes in relation to energy compensation in consumers who drink different types of milk". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67 (4): 616–23. PMID 9537608. ^ Lee HH, Gerrior SA (2002). "Consumers of reduced-fat, skim, and whole milk: intake status of micronutrients and diet fibers". Family Economics and Nutrition Review. 14 (1): 13–24. ^ Leake, Jonathan (2007-05-27).
"Scientists breed cows that give skimmed milk". London: Times Online. Retrieved 2008-05-13. ^ Herreid, Ernest O. "The Babcock Test; A Review of the Literature" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 25 (4): 342–343. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(42)95301-3. Retrieved 2008-06-19. ^ Hunziker, O F (May 1, 1917). "Specifications and Directions for Testing Milk and Cream for Butterfat".
Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 1 (1): 38–44. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(17)94359-0. Retrieved 2008-06-28. ^ Bailey, D E (September 1, 1919). "Study of Babcock Test for Butterfat in Milk". Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 2 (5): 331–373. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(19)94337-2. Retrieved 2008-06-28. ^ Trout, G M; P. S. Lucas (1945). "A Comparison of Various Modifications of the Babcock Test for the Testing of Homogenized Milk" (PDF).
Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 12 (90): 901–919. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(45)95251-9. Retrieved 2008-06-28. ^ http://www.neilsondairy.com/home/FAQ ^ a b c d e "Skimming the Milk Label". FDA. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-13. ^ "Bread and milk: the perfect couple". The Grocer. Retrieved 2010-06-23. ^ Elliot, Valerie (2008-01-01). "Milk producers urged to skim off more fat as EU relaxes rules".
London: Times Online. Retrieved 2008-05-13. ^ a b "Milk". Delia Online. Retrieved 2008-05-13. ^ a b "The Milk and Dairies (Semi-skimmed and Skimmed Milk) (Heat Treatment and Labelling) Regulations 1988". Queen's Printer of Acts of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-05-13. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fat_content_of_milk&oldid=817348960"See Also: Cows Milk Protein Intolerance
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Dairy milk comes in many varieties to match the wide range of consumer preferences. Do you like your milk creamy but not too rich? Then low-fat milk is a good choice. Do you prefer a light taste and low calories? Then fat-free milk might be for you. Do you have trouble digesting lactose? Then a lactose-free milk might be your best choice. Is your baby a year old and being weaned from the bottle? Then select whole milk for their second year of life.
Need boxes of milk to put in your child's lunch box? The single portion, shelf-stable milk boxes will meet your need. There is a variety and choice to fit every age and lifestyle. The primary types of milk sold in stores are: whole milk, reduced-fat milk (2%), low-fat milk (1%), and fat-free milk. The percentages included in the names of the milk indicate how much fat is in the milk by weight. Whole milk is 3.
5% milk fat and is the closest to the way it comes from the cow before processing. Consumers that want to cut calories and fat have multiple options; reduced-fat milk contains 2% milk fat and low-fat milk contains 1% milk fat. Fat-free milk, also called nonfat or skim, contains no more than 0.2% milk fat. All of these milks contain the nine essential nutrients found in whole milk but less fat.
The United States government sets minimum standards for fluid milk that is produced and sold. Reduced fat milks have all of the nutrients of full fat milk; no water is added to these types of milk. If you would like to learn more about the saturated fat controversy that has been in the news, check out Is Saturated Fat Bad For You? Maybe Not as Much as Previously Thought. Milk Processing Most milk undergoes processing before you buy it at the store.
The three primary steps include: pasteurization, homogenization and fortification. Pasteurization heats the milk to destroy harmful microorganisms and prolong shelf life. Normal pasteurization keeps milk safer while maintaining its valuable nutrients. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is pasteurized at a much higher temperature to make it sterile. UHT milk is then packed into special containers that keep it safe without requiring refrigeration.
After pasteurization, milk undergoes homogenization to prevent separation of the milk fat from the fluid milk. Homogenization creates a smooth, uniform texture. Finally, milk is fortified to increase its nutritional value or to replace nutrients lost during processing. Vitamin D is added to most milk produced in the United States to facilitate the absorption of calcium. Vitamin A is frequently added to reduced-fat, low-fat and fat-free milks.
Vitamin A promotes normal vision, particularly helping the eyes to adjust to low-light settings. Check the Nutrients in Milk page for a complete listing of the key nutrients found in milk. Organic Milk All milk must comply with very stringent safety standards and is among the most highly regulated and safest foods available. Organic milk is produced by dairy farmers that use only organic fertilizers and organic pesticides, and their cows are not given supplemental hormones (rBST).
Dairy farmers and producers make many specialty forms of milk to meet consumer preferences and needs. Organic milk is also available as lactose-free and ultra-pasteurized. The organic label is not a judgment about the quality or safety of the milk. As with all organic foods, it's the process that makes milk organic, not the final product. The nutrient content of organic milk is the same as standard milk and offers no additional health benefits compared to standard milk.
1 Stringent government standards that include testing all types of milk for antibiotic and pesticide residues ensure that both organic milk and conventional milk are pure, safe and nutritious.2 rBST Free Milk You may have noticed that most milk sold in Calforina is labeled "rBST-free". rBST is a synthetic version of the natural hormone BST (bovine somatotropin). Some dairy farmers choose to give their cows rBST to help increase milk production.
Since the milk produced is identical and offers the same nutritional benefits,3 producers are not required to label whether or not their cows are treated with rBST. However, some producers that do not use rBST often market their milk as "rBST-free" In the early 1990s, after rigorous testing, the FDA approved the use of rBST in milk production and declared the milk from rBST-supplemented cows safe for human consumption.
This has been affirmed and reaffirmed by the FDA, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, National Institute of Health and regulatory agencies in 30 countries.4 BST is species-specific, which means that it is biologically inactive in humans. In addition, pasteurization destroys 90% of BST and rBST in milk. The remaining trace amounts of this hormone in milk are broken down into inactive fragments (amino acids) by the gastrointestinal tract.
Furthermore, studies linking the hormones in milk to the early onset of puberty are false; both hormones are "cow-specific," meaning they have no effect on the human body. If you are concerned about dairy milk treated with rBST, rBST-free milk is readily available. 1O'Donnell, A.M. et al. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.
J Dairy Sci. 2010 May;93(5):1918-25. 2United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Production and Handling Standards. 2006. Retrieved 14 July 2008. ams.usda.gov. 3Vicini, John et al. Survey of Retail Milk Composition as Affected by Label Claims Regarding Farm-Management Practices. 2008. 1200-1202. 4 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Report of the Food and Drug Administration's Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin.
April 23, 2009. www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ProductSafetyInformation/ucm130321.htm.