A young bull of the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed. Japanese wagyu bull on a farm north of Kobe Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations, backgrounding, and feedlot operations. When raised in a feedlot, cattle are known as feeder cattle.
Many such feeder cattle are born in cow-calf operations specifically designed to produce beef calves. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, and products used in shampoo and cosmetics. Calving and breeding Besides breeding to meet the demand for beef production, owners also use selective breeding to attain specific traits in their beef cattle. An example of a desired trait could be leaner meat  or resistance to illness.
 Breeds known as dual-purpose breeds are also used for beef production. These breeds have been selected for two purposes at once, such as for both beef and dairy production, or both beef and draught. Dual-purpose breeds include the Brown Swiss and many of the Zebu breeds of India such as Tharparkar and Ongole Cattle. The original Shorthorn was also a dual-purpose breed, but it diverged into two groups through selective breeding.
Most beef cattle are mated naturally, whereby a bull is released into a cowherd approximately six weeks after calving period. However, beef cattle can also be bred through artificial insemination. Cattle are normally bred during the summer so that calving may occur the following spring. However, cattle breeding can occur at other times of year, such as late summer to early fall. Owners can select the breeding time based on a number of factors, including reproductive performance and seasonal cattle pricing.
 Cattle maintenance Cattle handlers are expected to maintain a low stress environment for their herds, involving constant safety, health, comfort, nourishment and humane handling. According to the Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council, beef cattle must have access to shelter from extreme weather, safe handling and equipment, veterinary care and humane slaughter. If an animal is infected or suspected to have an illness, its owners are to report it immediately to a practicing veterinarian for either treatment or euthanasia.
Due to the density of herd populations, illnesses can spread very quickly between cattle. Owners are expected to monitor their cattle's condition regularly for early detection and treatment, as cattle illness can threaten both cattle and human health  as witnessed with Mad cow disease. On average, cattle will consume 1.4 to 4% of their body weight daily. Cattle weighing 1000 lbs. will drink an average of 41 L a day, and approximately 82 L in hot weather.
 Cattle processing A steer that weighs 1,000 lb (450 kg) when alive makes a carcass weighing about 615 lb (280 kg), once the blood, head, feet, skin, offal and guts are removed. The carcass is then hung in a cold room for between one and four weeks, during which time it loses some weight as water dries from the meat. When boned and cut by a butcher or packing house this carcass then makes about 430 lb (200 kg) of beef.
 Beef cattle breeds This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Breed Location of Origin Description Adaptaur Australia A tropically adapted Bos taurus breed, developed from crosses between Herefords and Shorthorns. Afrikaner cattle South Africa Afrikaners are usually deep red with long spreading horns. They have the small cervico-thoracic hump typical of Sanga cattle. Aberdeen Angus Scotland Pure black, sometimes with white at udder.
Polled. Australian Braford Australia Developed for resistance to ticks and for heat tolerance by crossing Brahmans and Herefords. Australian Brangus Australia Polled breed developed by crossing Angus and Brahman Australian Charbray Australia Developed by crossing Charolais and Brahman and selected for resistance to heat, humidity, parasites and diseases. Beefmaster Texas Developed by breeding the Brahman, Shorthorn, and Hereford.
Belted Galloway Scotland Black with white band around middle, stocky, fairly long hair, polled. Very hardy and thrifty. Belgian Blue Belgium Grey roan, or white with grey on head. Extremely muscular. Fast-growing if well-fed. Belmont Red Australia A composite breed using Africander (African Sanga) and Hereford-Shorthorn Black Hereford Great Britain. Black, white head. A crossbreed produced by crossing a Hereford bull with Holstein or Friesian cows; used to obtain beef offspring from dairy cows.
Not maintained as a separate breed, although females may be used for further breeding with other beef bulls. Blonde d'Aquitaine Aquitaine region of south-west France. Pale brown, paler round eyes and nose. Muscular. Fast-growing if well-fed. Bonsmara South Africa Developed from 10/16 Afrikaner, 3/16 Hereford and 3/16 Shorthorn animals. Boran Eastern Africa Usually white, with the bulls being darker (sometimes almost black).
Brahman India Large, pendulous ears and dewlaps, hump over the shoulders Brangus United States Developed by crossing Angus and Brahman British White Great Britain White, with black (or sometimes red) ears, nose and feet; polled (hornless). Hardy and thrifty. Caracu Brazil Charolais Charolais France Wholly white or cream, lyre-shaped pale horns, or polled. Fast-growing if well-fed. Chianina Italy Dual purpose, originally large draft breed, later selected for beef.
Corriente Mexico Hardy, small, athletic, criollo-type, descended from Iberian cattle. Used in rodeo sports, noted for lean meat. Short horns, various colors, often spotted. Also called Criollo or Chinampo Crioulo Lageano Iberian Peninsula 400-year-old longhorn breed with around 700 individuals that live close to the plateau of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Dexter Southwest of Ireland Very small, black or dun, dark horns.
Sometimes has a dwarfing gene leading to very short legs. Hardy and thrifty. Droughtmaster Australia Developed by crossing Brahman cattle with taurine breeds, especially Beef Shorthorn. Tolerant of heat and ticks. English Longhorn Midlands of England. Red or brindle, with white back and belly. Very long cylindrical horns usually spreading sideways or downwards, often curving and even eventually making a circle.
Medium size, hardy. Florida Cracker cattle Florida, USA Small, criollo-type descended from cattle brought to the Southern U.S. by the Spanish Conquistadors. Adapted to subtropical climate, parasite-resistant. Endangered breed Galloway Galloway region of Scotland Black, stocky, fairly long hair, polled. Very hardy and thrifty. Gascon cattle French Pyrenees Grey, hardy, maternal breed. Good growth and conformation of calves.
Suitable for all farming systems, bred pure or crossed with a terminal sire Gelbvieh Germany Red, strong skin pigmentation, polled. Superior fertility, calving ease, mothering ability, and growth rate of calves. Han-u Korea Hereford Herefordshire, England Red, white head, white finching on neck, and white switch. Highland Scotland. Small, stocky; black, red, dun or white. Very long coat and very long pale horns, upswept in cows and steers.
Very hardy and thrifty. Hungarian Grey Hungary. Robust, easy-calving and long-lived. Horns long, curved and directed upward. Slender and tall. Well adapted to extensive pasture systems. Irish Moiled Northwest of Ireland. Red with white back and belly, or white with red ears, nose and feet. Polled. Hardy and thrifty. Jabres Central Java, Indonesia. Colors varied from light brown to dark brown with a black stripe spans from back to tail.
Limousin Limousin and Marche regions of France. Mid-brown, paler round eyes and nose. Fast-growing if well-fed. Lowline Australia Developed by selectively breeding small Angus cattle. Luing The isle of Luing /ˈlɪŋ/ and surrounding islands in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Rough coat, red-brown, polled. Bred by crossing Beef Shorthorn with Highland. Very hardy and thrifty. Madurese East Java, Indonesia.
Small body, short legs, reddish yellow hair. Maine-Anjou Anjou region in West France. Red-and-white pied. Mocho Nacional Brazil Polled Murray Grey South Eastern Australia Grey or silver polled cattle developed from a roan Shorthorn cow and an Angus bull. Easy-care versatile cattle that have been exported to many countries. Nelore India Exported to Brazil, where it has become a dominant breed. Nguni South Africa Extremely hardy breed developed by Nguni tribes for harsh African conditions.
Originally derived from the African Sanga Cattle, although quite distinct. Three subgroups are recognised, Makhatini, Swazi and Pedi. North Devon Devon, Cornwall and Somerset: the West Country in the south-west of England. Ruby-red, white tail switch, white horns. Piedmontese Piedmont Bred both for beef and dairy production; double muscled. White colored and possessing myostatin genes. Pineywoods Gulf coast, USA Landrace heritage endangered breed, lean, small, adapted to climate of the deep south, disease-resistant.
Short horns, various colors, often spotted Pinzgauer Austria A breed of cattle indigenous to the Pinz Valley, near Salzburg, Austria. Reared and used as dairy cattle in Europe although they are well adapted to drier landscapes of there USA, Australia and Southern Africa where they are kept for beef production or dual purposes. Solid red with very distinctive white blaze from wither, down to tail tip and underside.
Red Angus Scotland Colour variety of Angus: solid red. Polled. Red Poll East Anglia in England Red with white switch, polled (hornless), dual purpose. Red Sindhi Sindh in Pakistan Red Sindhi cattle are the most popular of all Zebu dairy breeds. In Pakistan, they are kept for beef production or dairy farming. Romagnola Italy Bred primarily for beef production; often used as draught beasts in the past.
White or grey with black pigmented skin and upward curving horns. Romosinuano Colombia Salers France Red. Hardy, easy calving. Santa Gertrudis Southern Texas Developed by crossing red Shorthorn and Brahma Simmental Western Switzerland Yellowish-brown, white head. Fast-growing if well-fed. Dual purpose (beef, dairy). Shorthorn/Beef Shorthorn Northern England Red, red with white back and belly, or white.
Square Meater New South Wales, Australia Small, grey or silver, polled; similar to Murray Grey. Sussex South-east England Rich chestnut red with white tail switch and white horns. Also used for draught until the early 20th century. Hardy and thrifty. Tabapuan Brazil Tajima Japan Black Wagyu bred for internationally renowned beefs such as Kobe and Matsuzaka. Texas Longhorn Texas Various colours, with very long, tapering, upswept horns – extending as much as 80 inches (2.
0 m) tip to tip. Very hardy in dry climates. Light muscled, so bulls often used for first-calf heifers. Wagyū Japan Black, horned, and noted for heavy marbling (intramuscular fat deposition). Welsh Black Wales Black, white upswept horns with black tips. Hardy. White Park Great Britain, Ireland. White, with black (or sometimes red) ears, nose and feet; white horns with dark tips. Hardy and thrifty.
See also Conjugated linoleic acid List of breeds of cattle References ^ a b c d "Beef Production". University of Guelph, Animal Sciences. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "Beef Research School: What's the Latest Research on Antimicrobial Resistance?". RealAgricultureOnline. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ a b "Recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals: Beef cattle" (PDF). Agriculture Canada.
Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "Code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle: Review of scientific research on priority issues" (PDF). Agriculture Canada. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "How much feed will my cow eat". Ministry of Agriculture Alberta. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "Beef Cattle: The codes of practice" (PDF). Agriculture Canada. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "1000 lb. steer to 610 lbs.
beef". Oklahoma Food Safety Division. Retrieved April 6, 2013. ^ "Breeds of Livestock". Gelbvieh. Archived from the original on 4 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-11. External links Oklahoma State University pages about cattle breeds. v t e Beef and veal Production Argentine beef Beef cattle Cow-calf operation Feeder cattle Kobe beef Organic beef Products Cuts Blade steak Brisket Chateaubriand steak Chuck steak Fajita Filet mignon Flank steak Flap steak Hanger steak Plate Ranch steak Restructured steak Rib eye Rib steak Round Rump Short loin Short ribs Shoulder tender Sirloin Top sirloin Skirt steak Spare ribs Standing rib roast Steak and eggs Strip Shank T-bone Tenderloin Tri-tip Trotters Tail Processed Jerky Aged Bresaola Cabeza Corned beef Frankfurter Rindswurst Ground Montreal smoked Pastrami Meat extract Offal Brain Heart Tongue Tendon Tripas Tripe Testicles Dishes Steak / Beefsteak List of steak dishes Blanquette de veau Beef Wellington Beef bourguignon Beef bun Beef Manhattan Beef noodle soup Beef on weck Beef Stroganoff Boiled beef Bulgogi Calf's liver and bacon Cheesesteak Chicken fried steak Cordon bleu Dendeng Feu French dip Ginger beef Galbi Gored gored Gyūdon Hamburg steak Hortobágyi palacsinta Iga penyet Italian beef Jellied veal Karađorđeva šnicla Kitfo Lanzhou beef lamian London broil Mongolian beef Neobiani Ossobuco Pot roast Pozharsky cutlet P'tcha Ragout fin Rawon Rendang Roast beef Roast beef sandwich Salisbury steak Saltimbocca Sha cha beef Shooter's sandwich Steak and kidney pudding Steak Diane Steak and oyster pie Steak au poivre Tartare Tafelspitz Tongseng Veal Milanese Veal Orloff Veal Oscar Vitello tonnato Wallenbergare Related meats American bison Beefalo Water buffalo Żubroń Other Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Beef hormone controversy Beef ring Carcass grade Darkcutter Meat on the bone Ractopamine - Beef Veal USA beef imports Japan Taiwan South Korea (2008 US beef protest in South Korea) Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beef_cattle&oldid=810189208"See Also: Who Discovered Milking A Cow
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For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). An uncooked rib roast Wagyu cattle are an example of a breed raised primarily for beef. Beef as part of a meal with potatoes and spinach Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and essential nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be cut into roasts, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, rump steak, rib steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak, etc.
). Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the United States as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters).
Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is very similar. According to the most recent National Beef Quality Audit, heifer carcasses had slightly more marbling than steer carcasses, but USDA quality grade was not significantly different. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies.
The meat from older bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (known as ground beef in the United States). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil.
According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. Cows are considered sacred in the Hinduism and most observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef.
In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef, (including buffalo meat), were India (buffalo meat only), Brazil and Australia. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Canada, Paraguay, Mexico, Argentina, Belarus and Nicaragua. Etymology The word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow which is from Middle English cou (both words have the same Indo-European root *gʷou-).
 After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them.
This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry.Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. History People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux, show aurochs in hunting scenes.
People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef, milk, and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent. It is unknown exactly when people started cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the Old World as draft animals (oxen), for milk, or specifically for human consumption.
With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey, Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss (Braunvieh). In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest.
Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Farming of beef cattle Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching, backgrounding and Intensive animal farming.
Typically, the production of one pound (0.45 kg) of cooked beef requires 27 lb (12 kg) of fodder, over 200 US gal (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water and nearly three hundred square feet (28 m2) of land. Cuts Main article: Cut of beef Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut.
The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.
Special beef designations Breed and origin based designations Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare Certified Angus Beef (CAB) in Canada and the United States is a specification-based, branded-beef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers to increase demand for their breed of cattle, by promoting the impression that Angus cattle have consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste.
The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms Angus Beef or Black Angus Beef are loosely and commonly misused or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the food service industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef cannot be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so. In the UK the equivalent is Aberdeen Angus, marketed as higher quality and associated with stricter animal welfare rules.
Notable for the herd being free of BSE during the BSE epidemic in the UK. Similar schemes are used elsewhere as in Certified Angus Beef in Ireland. Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle. Kobe beef is pure Tajima-gyu breed bull, that was born, raised, and slaughtered solely within the Hyogo prefecture. Very limited amounts of Kobe are exported. The EU recognizes the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands: Spain – Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela, Ternera Galega France – Taureau de Camargue, Boeuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du Maine Portugal – Carne Alentejana, Carne Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa United Kingdom – Orkney Beef, Scotch Beef, Welsh Beef Belgium – Belgian Blue Process based designations Some certifications are based upon the way the cattle are treated fed and or slaughtered.
Grass-fed beef cattle have been raised exclusively on forage. Grain-fed beef cattle are raised primarily on forage, but are "finished" in a feedlot. Halal beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws. Kosher beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. Organic beef is produced without added hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals, though requirements for labeling it organic vary widely.
Output based standards Some standards are based upon the inspected quality of the meat after slaughter. Beef grading Countries regulate the marketing and sale of Beef by observing criteria post slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat. This classification, sometimes optional, can suggest a market demand for a particular animal's attributes and therefore the price owed to the producer.
See also: Beef carcass classification and Food grading Aging and tenderization Main article: Beef aging Further information: Meat § Conditioning, Meat preservation, and Meat tenderness To improve tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss.
Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects.
The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins.
Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor. Cooking and preparation Cooked ground beef.
These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs. Dry heat Roast beef cooked under high heat Method Description Grilling is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 340 °C (650 °F). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorsome crust. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany and The Netherlands, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ".
When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling. Barbecue refers to a technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire. Broiling is a term used in North America. It is similar to grilling, but with the heat source always above the meat. Elsewhere this is considered a way of grilling. Griddle Meat may be cooked on a hot metal griddle.
A little oil or fat may be added to inhibit sticking; the dividing line when the method becomes shallow frying is not well-defined. Roasting is a way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat.
Roasting is suitable for thicker pieces of meat; the other methods listed are usually for steaks and similar cuts. Internal temperature Main article: Doneness Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.
Frying Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables.
The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'. Moist heat Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking. Stewing or simmering simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings.
This technique may be used as part of pressure cooking. Braising cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step. Sous-vide Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking.
The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food. Beef roasted with vinegar and sliced with spiced paste, often called "cold beef". Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract.
Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) (sous-vide) to 90 °C (194 °F) (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and pasteurization can be achieved.
Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after). Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely.
The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.) Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques.
In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat. Raw beef Sliced beef Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef).
More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian or Dutch dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich.
Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese and Syrian dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten (upon availability). Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces.
The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg. Cured, smoked, and dried beef Beef curry in Dhaka, Bangladesh Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour.
It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty." Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.
Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region.
Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after. There are various other recipes for pickled beef.
Sauerbraten is a German variant. Religious prohibitions Main article: Cattle in religion A pamphlet protesting against the Muslim practice of beef-eating. The propagandists equate the Muslims to the demon in the far right and the sacred cow as Kamadhenu. It was run by the Ravi Varma Press (c. 1912). Most Hindus consider killing cattle and eating beef a sin. However, they do not consider the cow to be a god and they do not worship it.
Bovines have a sacred status in India especially the cow, from the idealization due to their provision of sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be integral to the landscape. India is a developing country; many of its rural area economies depend upon cattle farming, hence they have been revered in the society. From vedic periods role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like ploughing, row planting, ridging, and weeding made people to revere the importance of cow in their daily lives, and this rose with the advent of Jainism and Gupta period.
 Lack of secular tolerance and caste politics has also given birth to Hindu right-wing vigilante cow protection groups. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that has led to loss of human life and in an 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause. A. N. Bose in Social and Rural Economy of Northern India says any taboo or the cow worship itself is a relatively recent development in India.
The sacred white Cow is considered as the abode of 33 crore Hindu Deities. Products of Cow's milk like curd, butter, cheese, milk sweets are sold commercially and used in religious rituals. Other animals that Hindus consider sacred are, the monkey (Hanuman), the elephant and rat (Ganesha), the tiger (Durga). For religious reasons the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine.
 During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians and Catholics give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws. Legal prohibition India Main article: Cattle slaughter in India India is one of the biggest exporters of beef.
Though some states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by Caste And Religion based Politics. Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts conclude so, however certain Hindu castes and sects avoid beef from their diets. In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of cattle and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
Though the original act permits the humane slaughter of animals for food. Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone in meat, carcass, half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited and is not permitted to be exported. Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export. In 2017 India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that with the total ban of beef product export from India there would be market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers.
They estimate there would be a twenty per cent shortage of beef and thirteen per cent shortage of leather in the world market. Cuba In 2003, Cuba banned cow slaughter due to severe shortage of milk and milk products. Nutrition and health Ground Beef 15% fat, broiled Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,047 kJ (250 kcal) Carbohydrates 0 g Starch 0 g Dietary fiber 0 g Fat 15 g Saturated 5.
887 g Monounsaturated 6.662 g Polyunsaturated 0.485 g Protein 26 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.046 mg Riboflavin (B2) (15%) 0.176 mg Niacin (B3) (36%) 5.378 mg Vitamin B6 (29%) 0.383 mg Folate (B9) (2%) 9 μg Vitamin B12 (110%) 2.64 μg Choline (17%) 82.4 mg Vitamin D (1%) 7 IU Vitamin E (3%) 0.45 mg Vitamin K (1%) 1.2 μg Minerals Calcium (2%) 18 mg Copper (43%) 0.85 mg Iron (20%) 2.
6 mg Magnesium (6%) 21 mg Manganese (1%) 0.012 mg Phosphorus (28%) 198 mg Potassium (7%) 318 mg Selenium (31%) 21.6 μg Sodium (5%) 72 mg Zinc (66%) 6.31 mg Other constituents Water 58 g Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient Database Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, iron, phosphorus and zinc.
 Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking. Health concerns See also: Red meat § Human health Cancer Excessive consumption of red processed meat is known to increase the risk of bowel cancer and some other cancers. Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease The Harvard School of Public Health recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat.
 This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus." This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease.
More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat." Dioxins Some cattle raised in the United States feed on pastures fertilized with sewage sludge. Elevated dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle. Recalls Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the United States, due to Escherichia coli (E.
coli) contamination: January 2011, One Great Burger expands recall. February 2011, American Food Service, a Pico Rivera, Calif. establishment, is recalling approximately 3,170 pounds (1,440 kg) of fresh ground beef patties and other bulk packages of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. March 2011, 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) beef recalled by Creekstone Farms Premium Beef due to E.
coli concerns. April 2011, National Beef Packaging recalled more than 60,000 pounds (27,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination. May 2011, Irish Hills Meat Company of Michigan, a Tipton, Mich., establishment is recalling approximately 900 pounds (410 kg) of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. September 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 131,100 pounds (59,500 kg) of ground beef due to E.
coli contamination. December 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination. January 2012, Hannaford Supermarkets recalled all ground beef with sell by dates 17 December 2011 or earlier. September 2012, XL Foods recalled more than 1800 products believed to be contaminated with E. coli 0157:H7. The recalled products were produced at the company's plant in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; this was the largest recall of its kind in Canadian History.
Mad cow disease Main article: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom. Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta, Canada, the American border was closed to live Canadian cattle, but was reopened in early 2005.
 In June 2005 Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. Clifford would not identify the ranch, calling that "privileged information." The 12-year-old animal was alive at the time when Oprah Winfrey raised concerns about cannibalistic feeding practices on her show which aired 16 April 1996.
In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban. EU Regulation No 999/2001 had outlined a complete ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle. A regulation that modified Annex IV of 999/2001, was published in 2013 that allowed for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.
 World producers Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries – 2016 Beef exports, including buffalo meat, in metric tons(2016) Rank Country 2015 %of the World 1 Brazil 1,850,000 19.60% 1 India 1,850,000 19.60% 3 Australia 1,385,000 14.67% 4 United States 1,120,000 11.87% 5 New Zealand 580,000 6.14% Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009,2010)  Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009) Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg 1 United States 11,889 11,789 −0.
8% 2 Brazil 8,935 9,300 4% 3 EU-27 7,970 7,920 −0.6% 4 China 5,764 5,550 −4% 5 Argentina 3,400 2,800 −18% 6 India 2,610 2,760 6% 7 Australia 2,100 2,075 −1% 8 Mexico 1,700 1,735 2% 9 Russia 1,285 1,260 −2% 10 Pakistan 1,226 1,250 2% National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head) Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg 1 India 57,960 58,300 0.6% 2 Brazil 49,150 49,400 0.5% 3 China 42,572 41,000 −4% 4 United States 35,819 35,300 −1.
4% 5 EU-27 30,400 30,150 −0.8% 6 Argentina 12,300 13,200 7% 7 Australia 9,213 10,158 10% 8 Russia 7,010 6,970 −0.6% 9 Mexico 6,775 6,797 0.3% 10 Colombia 5,675 5,675 0.0% See also Argentine beef Beef Australia Beef hormone controversy Carnism Entrecôte List of beef dishes List of meat animals Pink slime References ^ Piatti-Farnell, Lorna (2013). Beef: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.
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^ http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-exports-ranking-countries-0-106903 ^ Daily Livestock Report – Vol. 8, No. 126/ 30 June 2010 External links Find more aboutBeefat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Beef at Wikibook Cookbooks USDA beef grading standards (PDF) Nutrition Facts for Various Cuts of Beef Many different meat cut charts The Story of Beef in Nebraska, the Beef State with videos, history, life cycle, issues, and culture Beef State Documentary produced by Nebraska Educational Telecommunications v t e Beef and veal Production Argentine beef Beef cattle Cow-calf operation Feeder cattle Kobe beef Organic beef Products Cuts Blade steak Brisket Chateaubriand steak Chuck steak Fajita Filet mignon Flank steak Flap steak Hanger steak Plate Ranch steak Restructured steak Rib eye Rib steak Round Rump Short loin Short ribs Shoulder tender Sirloin Top sirloin Skirt steak Spare ribs Standing rib roast Steak and eggs Strip Shank T-bone Tenderloin Tri-tip Trotters Tail Processed Jerky Aged Bresaola Cabeza Corned beef Frankfurter Rindswurst Ground Montreal smoked Pastrami Meat extract Offal Brain Heart Tongue Tendon Tripas Tripe Testicles Dishes Steak / Beefsteak List of steak dishes Blanquette de veau Beef Wellington Beef bourguignon Beef bun Beef Manhattan Beef noodle soup Beef on weck Beef Stroganoff Boiled beef Bulgogi Calf's liver and bacon Cheesesteak Chicken fried steak Cordon bleu Dendeng Feu French dip Ginger beef Galbi Gored gored Gyūdon Hamburg steak Hortobágyi palacsinta Iga penyet Italian beef Jellied veal Karađorđeva šnicla Kitfo Lanzhou beef lamian London broil Mongolian beef Neobiani Ossobuco Pot roast Pozharsky cutlet P'tcha Ragout fin Rawon Rendang Roast beef Roast beef sandwich Salisbury steak Saltimbocca Sha cha beef Shooter's sandwich Steak and kidney pudding Steak Diane Steak and oyster pie Steak au poivre Tartare Tafelspitz Tongseng Veal Milanese Veal Orloff Veal Oscar Vitello tonnato Wallenbergare Related meats American bison Beefalo Water buffalo Żubroń Other Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Beef hormone controversy Beef ring Carcass grade Darkcutter Meat on the bone Ractopamine - Beef Veal USA beef imports Japan Taiwan South Korea (2008 US beef protest in South Korea) v t e Meat Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood Poultry and game Alligator Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison Livestock andminilivestock Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak Fish and seafood Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale Cuts and preparation Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare List articles Beef dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat dishes Lamb dishes Meatball dishes Pork dishes Ham dishes Sausage dishes Sausages Seafood dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal dishes Meat consumption Related subjects Animal rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat cutter Meat tenderness Pescetarianism Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat Meat paradox Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter Slaughterhouse Veganism Vegetarianism White meat Authority control LCCN: sh85012809 NDL: 00562737 Retrieved from "https://en.