Prologue Scope-Significance of Dairy Sector Location: Dairy cooperatives Milk Supply Chain: Upstream Issues Low productivity of milch animals #1: Veterinary problems #2: Breeding issues #3: Fodder problems Azolla fern Milk Quality Milk Supply Chain: Processing Issues Regional imbalance Anand/Amul Model/dairy cooperative model Amul Supply Chain Cooperative sector limitations Milk Supply Chain: Downstream Issues #1: MRP and adulteration Synthetic Milk #2: Ethnic products: untapped potential #3: Export issues Fonterra crisis #4: Tax on inputs NDDB Operation Flood Government Schemes National Dairy Plan (NDP) Mock Questions on Milk Supply Chain Management First, regarding “Write Articles, Win Books” competition: so far 34 entries received.
And last date to submit is 25th Sept 2013. Click me for more details. For UPSC General Studies Mains Paper III, we were looking at the Food processing and related industries in India. So far we saw following topics Food processing industry: Awesomeness and Obstacles Food processing industry: Truckload of Government Schemes and bodies Marketing of agricultural produce: issues and constrains, Nuisance of APMC Acts and Commission Agents Agro/Food Processing: Export, Dumping, FDI, Finance, Taxation, Budget Provisions, CODEX, NWR, BRGF, RKVY Supply Chain Management, Upstream Downstream requirements for Fruit & Vegetables, Confectionery industries Then I got bored with food processing, hence made three compilations on Hindu Sci-tech (and some posts about results, answer keys etc.
) Anyways, back to where we had left in [Food processing]: fruits veggies SCM-updream downstream. Now time for Dairy & Milk Supply Chain Management SCM-upstream downstream issues. UPSC syllabus topic in this article prelims Paper I Chemistry: components of synthetic milk Agro-tech: azolla fern. Biology: Food and Mouth disease (GS1) location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India) Dairy industry in India.
(GS2) Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, How the Fonterra crisis will help Indian dairy biz. (GS3) economics of animal-rearing Lot fodder material. (GS3) Food processing and related industries in India-scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. for Milk/Dairy business. Next time we’ll see [Food processing] meat, poultry and fisheries.
HIGHEST PRODUCTION Top five Milk producers (World) India United States of America China Pakistan (as per NDDB, but I’m baffled nonetheless.) Russian Federation LARGEST POPULATION India has the world’s largest livestock population half the world population of buffaloes 1/6th of the world goat population CONTRIBUTION TO GDP Livestock sector (milk, meat, eggs) contributes 3.
6% of GDP. (2010’s data) Availability Per capita milk availability All India: ~290 gm; Punjab (highest): >900gm. still per capita milk availability in India less than world average EMPOWERMENT To Farmers, Women And Consumers more details under “operation flood” India has proximity to milk deficit countries e.g. Bangladesh Indonesia Malaysia Philippines South Korea Sri-Lanka Thailand Hence Indian dairy production could be utilized to earn good foreign exchange by targeting those markets.
More under “Downstream=>Export”. SOME STUPID NUMBERS FROM ECONOMIC SURVEY: Year Milk (Million Tonnes) Eggs(Million Nos.) Fish(Million Tonnes) 2011-12 >120 >60,000 >8500 Location: Dairy cooperatives STATE Brand Name official name GUJARAT Amul Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) ANDHRA Vijaya Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development Cooperative Federation (APDDCF) KARNATAKA Nandini Karnataka Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation (KMF) MAHARASHTRA Mahanand, Gokul, Dhawal, Dudh Pandri Maharashtra Rajya Sahakari Maryadit Dugdh Mahasangh (Mahasangh) PUNJAB Verka Punjab State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation (MILKFED) TN Aavain Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd (TCMPF) Issue: there is a regional imbalance in production and processing capabilities.
e.g. UP contributes over 17 percent of India’s total milk production. Ironically, only one percent is procured by co-operatives, remaining milk goes to private-dairy players, who exploit farmers, and do adulteration. Ranking: Top Five States NO. COWS N BUFFALOS MILK PRODUCTION PER CAPITA MILK AVAILABILITY Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Punjab Gujarat Punjab Haryana Rajasthan Himachal Pradesh Gujarat Bottom in all of above: North Eastern States, Delhi, Goa and UT.
Milk production =directly related to fodder availability. Fodder=need irrigation. Therefore, states with good irrigation facilities and / or rich farmers that can afford tubewells= milk production is high. For these reasons, you can see how MP is in top-5, for number of cows and buffalos BUT still MP doesn’t figure in top-5 in milk production due to fodder shortage. (Rankings taken from NDDB website) Low productivity of milch animals Country Avg.
Cow Milk Kg Per Year Australia >4000 EU >5500 USA >8000 World Average 3100 India 800 India has world’s largest cow population, but the average productivity of Indian cows is among the lowest in the world. WHY? Veterinary service problems Breeding problems Fodder problems Let’s see them one by one: #1: Veterinary problems Manpower To support health programmes for the massive livestock population, we need more than 60000 veterinary doctors in the rural areas.
(right now we only have ~25000) Need to strengthen the mobile veterinary services to ensure door-step veterinary support, particularly in inaccessible areas. Veterinary hospitals, dispensaries are inadequate in rural areas. information The disease reporting is neither timely nor complete which delays proper interventions. NIC developing software for computerized National Animal Disease Reporting System (NADRS) It’ll link taluka, Block, District and State Headquarters to a Central Disease Reporting and Monitoring Unit at the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) This will ensure faster and reliable disease reporting Inadequate availability of vaccines vs.
High prevalence of FMD, theileriosis and brucellosis amongst cattle FMD alone causes economic loss of ~Rs.20,000 crore per year to India. let’s check more details about FMD for MCQs. Foot and mouth Disease (FMD) FMD is a viral disease that spreads rapidly between animals. high prevalence in Africa, the Middle East and Asia FMD affects cloven-hoofed animals (those with divided hoofs), including cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer and pigs.
It can even affect wild animals e.g. Deer, wild pigs and buffalos. Pigs are regarded as ‘amplifying hosts’ because they can excrete very large quantities of the virus in their exhaled breath. Cattle are very susceptible to FMD. They get infected by breathing even small quantities of the virus. FMD spreads rapidly from one animal to another, especially in cool, damp climates and/or when animals are housed closely together.
Although FMD is not very lethal in adult animals, it can kill young animals and cause serious production losses. Animal suffering from FMD : Becomes lame and unable to walk to feed or water. Stops eating because its tongue and mouth gets blister- very painful to chew anything. =Adult animal can survive a few days of starvation but young animal will die. Its mammary glands are damaged=milk production loss.
FMD has serious ramifications in international trade of milk and meat. Because countries that are free of the FMD disease= they ban or restricting imports from FMD affected countries. There is no cure for FMD. The Affected animals will recover with time. Although Vaccines can protect against the disease. Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) has initiated National Programmes for prevention and control of FMD, with help of State government.
#2: Breeding issues CLIMATE The cattle from temperate region have higher milk production. (e.g. Denmark) But India: tropical, sub-tropical, hot-humid type climate So even when we import foreign cattle breeds, they give less milk because of climatic factor. BREEDING RESEARCH Present breeding strategy focuses on high yielding cows/buffalos rather than developing breeds that are tolerant to adverse climate/fodder conditions.
Crossbred animals are sent to areas poor in feed resources=they don’t survive/don’t produce optimum amount of milk. Limited availability of quality breeding bulls and semen. Notable breeds Cow: Sahiwal, Gir, Rathi and Kankrej Buffalo: Murrah, Mehsana and Jaffarbadi Solution? BREED promote in ___ area HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN in feed-fodder rich states JERSEY in states poor in feed/fodder resources.
Government started ‘National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB)’ is to promote genetic upgradation of Indian cattle livestock through Artificial Insemination. NGOs like BAIF and JK trust are operating about 6,000 mobile artificial insemination centres. #3: Fodder problems Rich farmers=irrigation /tubewell =can grow fodder=>higher milk yields But majority are poor farmers= rely on common pastures =>underfed cattle= less milk yields.
For the same reason: MP is in top 5 for cattle population but not in top 5 for milk production While the number of livestock is increasing, the grazing lands are diminishing, because Real-estate mafias and National Son-in-law encroaching on such land Farmers prefer growing food grains, oil seeds, and pulses hence fodder production generally gets lower priority. At present, fodder is being cultivated only on 4% of gross cropped area= insufficient to meet requirement.
High quality fodder seeds =not available. Agriculture crop residues are sold to paper industry, packaging, etc. rather than using as animal feed. We dont have specific extension machinery with specialized manpower for popularization of good fodder varieties. Solutions? FODDER BANKS to procure surplus fodder from the farmers in areas with good rainfall / irrigation. Convert this fodder into silage or fodder blocks for storage Supply this packed fodder to the deficient areas.
FOREST the degraded forest areas, mostly under the Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs), can be used for assisting growth of indigenous improved fodder varieties of grasses, legumes, and trees under area-specific silvi-pastoral systems. Dovetail the ongoing schemes like MGNREGA and RKVY for ^this purpose. AZOLLA PRODUCTION Azolla fern Azolla is a floating fern. It resembles algae, Multiplies very rapidly.
widely distributed in tropical belt of India. Grows in paddy fields or shallow water bodies. Benefits of Azolla fern? FOR CROPPING Azolla is a Nitrogen fixing fern= aids in the growth of rice. Azolla reduces evaporation from water surface and increases water use efficiency in rice. Suppresses the weed growth. FOR LIVESTOCK FEED Azolla has 50-60% protein on dry weight basis, rich in almost all essential amino acids, vitamin A, vitamin B-complex and minerals Livestock easily digest it.
Dry Azolla can be mixed with other fodder, or can be given directly to cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, pigs and rabbits. Green Azolla is also a good feed for fishes. From farm to dairy, there is significant deterioration in milk quality. Because of two reasons: Factors affecting quality of Milk Supply BOGUS INFRASTRUCTURE lack of all-weather roads in many villages Electrical problems in rural areas= cooling centers don’t work 24/7 basis.
lack of potable water and supply sewage disposal => animals kept in unhygienic condition=milk gets contaminated. BOGUS HANDLING Contamination through equipment. Because lack of potable water=> milk-cans, buckets, tankers are not regularly washed. Bad roads=more transport time=more bacterial growth in milk. Careless attitude of cooperative-staff. They don’t keep the prescribed low-temperature during collection and transport of milk.
^Why careless attitude? Because Dairy cooperative elections won through money power and then such office-bearers recruit any swinging dude in dairy as long as he is payin bribes for getting the job. Result: following properties of milk get affected SENSORY PROPERTIES color, taste, odour COMPOSITION fat, protein etc. HYGIENE bacteriological growth Solution? Currently, when farmer supplies milk @dairy cooperative society (DCS) of his village, they only test one thing: “fat content”.
Therefore, farmer has no incentive to maintain any other qualities of milk. Setup quality testing facilities @collection center to test bacteria count, acidity, smell/taste, bacterial count, heavy metals, pesticides residue etc. and not just fat-content alone. Train farmers on hygiene habits for milk collection. Pay farmers more money if they supply quality milk Supply of Hygiene Kits+ Training to DCS staff.
Impose penalty if they don’t comply with the standards. Less manual handling, use more machines: Bucket Milking machines, Feed racks, water bowls and partitions etc. A typical supply chain of milk sector: Regional imbalance Bulk of new capacity in the period in last decade, has been established in the Northern states, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Remaining states are lagging in dairy growth. Capacity utilization of dairy plants is about 60% (assuming 300 working days in a year).
Due to Lack of milk availability in the lean season. For e.g. Rajasthan has 8% share in milk production and 11% share in consumption of milk products, however the share in dairy processing capacity is 4%. Meaning much of the milk escapes from the ‘value-addition’ in dairy supply chain. A similar situation prevails in Bihar. Anand/Amul Model/dairy cooperative model 1946 Sardar Patel encourage the farmers of Anand region in Gujarat, to form their own milk cooperative, to protect themselves from exploitation from private milk traders 1965 National Dairy development board setup @Anand, to replicate the dairy cooperative model throughout country.
(PM Lal Bahadur Shashtri) 1971 Gujarat Cooperative Milk marketing federation setup (GCMMF) 1974 GCMMF starts maketing milk products under single brand name Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited) Amul Supply Chain VILLAGE In the given village, a dairy Cooperative Society (DCS) is formed. Every dairy cooperative society has ~110 farmers. Combined, all DCS together handle more than 18 million kg milk / day.
they’re equipped with Automatic milk collection unit (AMCUS): computer analyses fat content of milk, automatic printing of receipts etc. DISTRICT MARKETING COOP.UNION they process milk=> butter, ghee, milk powder, cheese, ice cream etc. E.g. Banaskantha District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited known as Banas Dairy. They manufacture a large number of dairy products under AMUL, SAGAR and BANAS brands.
Usually “Banas” products sold locally, and Amul products sent to other states. similarly Gandhinagar District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.=Madhur dairy. Surat= Sumul Dairy Surendranagar District Co =Sursagar Dairy. They can sell their products under the brand name “Amul” as long as they meet the requirements of GCMMF. (e.g. must collect 30,000 litres milk daily for a period of three years) STATE MILK COOP.
FEDERATION The main “boss” is Gujarat Cooperative Milk marketing federation (GCMMF). All of above district cooperative unions (Banas, Madhur, Sumul Sursagar) etc. fall under GCMMF umbrella. RETAIL Amul has more than 5000 outlets of own- at high streets, residential areas, Railway Stations, Bus Stations, Educational Institutions, across India. 2012: Amul planned to setup 10000 retail outlets across India.
Other than that, even private shops, hotels, restaurants etc. too sell Amul products. this “Amul Model” eliminates middlemen and directly engages farmer with the processor (dairy) These cooperatives form part of a national milk grid which links the milk producers throughout India with consumers in more than 700 towns and cities here is one more supply chain diagram: click to enlarge Cooperative sector limitations Reach While dairy Cooperatives have played an important role in Indian milk industry’s development, but still dairy cooperatives reach barely ~20% of the Indian farmers.
Competition Dairy cooperatives face increasing competition from private dairies: both in procurement + retailing of milk. Private players are more agile, offering better incentives to farmers compared to the cooperative. Even the largest Indian dairy player (Amul)’s annual turnover is quite lower than a large MNC dairy company like Nestle. Management Dairy cooperatives are subject to state laws /regulations.
But often, the elections in dairy cooperatives are won using money and caste equations. When such fraudsters get key positions in the dairy board, all they care is how to recover their ‘investment’ by taking bribes in appoint of dairy staff=> inefficiency + lack of new initiatives. Hence, State governments need to make these dairy cooperatives more accountable, democratic and professional in their functioning.
#1: MRP and adulteration WPI for Milk product= more than 190 (for 2012) Meaning there is 90% increase in the wholesale price of Milk, compared to base year 2004. This type of killer price rise=> has led to adulteration, fake milk from urea, Nakli-Maawaa etc. once in a while, you’ve seen reports about this, particularly in Delhi-UP region. Such fake milk products are extremely hazardous to health.
In long term, they’ll destroy India’s name in foreign market, just like Chinese milk products lost business internationally, after news reports of Melamine adulteration in 2008. Synthetic Milk Synthetic milk is prepared by mixing urea, caustic soda, refined oil (cheap cooking oil) and common detergents. Ingredients of Synethic/artificial milk INGREDIENT Why added in synthetic milk? REFINED OIL As a substitute for milk fat.
DETERGENT Detergent acts as an “emulsifying agent”. Meaning it helps above refined oil to get mixed in water and give a frothy white solution that looks like milk. Even in legit (real) milk, the traces of detergent are found because farmers and dairy staff use cheap detergents to clean vessels, buckets etc. but don’t thoroughly wash them. CAUSTIC SODA To neutralize the acidic PH of other ingredients and thus prevents fake-milk from turning sour during transport.
UREA To increase solid-not-fat (SNF) content. Higher the SNF=better the milk-quality, fetches more price when sold to dairy. it also increases viscosity (thickness) of the liquid so you feel you’ve bought ‘premium’ quality milk . STARCH Prevents curdling in fake-milk. Heath hazards of Synthetic milk: damages kidney, heart problems, cancer and even death National Survey on Milk Adulteration 2011 Was conducted by FSSAI.
click me to learn more about FSSAI Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal, Mizoram, Jharkhand and Daman & Diu= their milk failed in all tests. only Goa and Puducherry’s milk passed all the test. ~70% of Indian milk doesn’t meet the standards set by set by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) Last year, Union government quoted ^this report, while filling affidavit in SC about milk adulteration.
Union also said that it Is state government’s responsibility to act on milk adulteration problem. Later SC asked state governments to file affidavit about what action they’ve taken. #2: Ethnic products: untapped potential Examples of ethnic milk products: Paneer, Rasogolla, Sandesh, Pantua, Rasomalai, Cham, Rajbhog, Kulfi, Rabri, Basundi, Burfi, peda, Gulabjamun, Kalakand, Dahi, Mishti Doi, Lassi, Chhach / Mattha, Srikhand etc.
Scope: For ethnic milk products, profit level is ~12-38% of the input cost. PROBLEM SOLUTION Most of the ethnic milk products are made by local halwaii / sweet shop= unbranded, unorganized. Can’t compete in foreign market. You need to create a brand first to earn the respect and trust of foreign customers. Since this is done on small scale = they use cheap quality packaging material, even harmful colors and preservatives used, =Doesn’t meet quality norm in US/EU market.
To make Indian ethnic milk products famous like cakes, pastries, pastas and noodles => have to invest a lot in marketing promotions abroad. Small scale firms can’t do that. Train small manufacturers of ethic dairy products, such as halwaiis: make them to adopt hygienic practices, use state / district level bodies, cooperatives, ITI’s can be involved in such efforts Catalyze R & D for commercialization of ethnic dairy products The Ministry of Food Processing, in conjunction with the NDDB, needs to undertake generic promotional campaigns to enhance the image of Indian ethnic dairy-based products in US/EU markets.
#3: Export issues Import export of milk products (2012-13) in crore Rs. export import >700 >100 Earlier we saw India is located close to the milk deficit countries, but still India hasn’t capitalized on this location advantage due to the following reasons: Low quality and hygiene standards. Only ~35% of milk produced in India is processed. Rest is sold by local doodhwalla= not enough milk available for export.
Domestic consumption of milk has increased => less surplus left for exports Lack of experience in marketing products in international markets, particularly for ethnic milk products. Low productivity and quality are the key reasons due to which processors in India, are not able to achieve the scale of operations of their counterparts in New Zealand or Australia. Ban 2011 Export of milk powders (Skimmed Milk Powders, Whole Milk Powders, Dairy Whitener, Infant Milk Foods etc.
), Casein and Casein Derivative was prohibited 2012 ban lifted, these milk/casein products export given under Vishesh Krishi and Gram Udyog Yojana(VKGUY) Fonterra crisis New Zealand = one of the biggest dairy exporter of the world. Fonterra= New Zealand’s biggest dairy company 2013: News report came that Fonterra’s milk powder could have been contaminated with the Clostridium bacteria. It can cause fatal botulism.
After this news report, China and Sri Lanka banned Fonterra’s products. Fonterra CEO says: it was a false alarm, the bacteria variety found in our milk powder is not capable of causing botulism, but nonetheless we have recalled all the batches exported. So don’t worry Anyways, all this negative publicity and banning of New Zealand dairy products= gives opportunity for Amul to tap those export markets.
#4: Tax on inputs In earlier times, dairy industry had been subjected to octroi and sales tax etc. creating a non-level playing field with the unorganized sector. There had been high level of taxation on dairy equipment and machinery (excise, sales tax, octroi) Even the excise duty on polyethylene film, aseptic packaging machines, milk vending machines, pouch filling machines, used in packing and distribution.
This has hampered the growth of dairy industry. Although nowadays, taxes on most of these items have been reduced / abolished. Necessary Reform: Speedy implementation of GST. Enough of supply chain, let’s look at some allied topics: NDDB, Operation Flood, Government schemes related to dairy sector. National Dairy Development Board Statutory body (1965) apex organization of dairy cooperatives in the country Chairman: Amrita Patel HQ: Anand, Gujarat 2013: NDDB been in news because AWARD NDDB has Won Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Award for the financial year 2011-12.
(But declared in 2013). Rajbhasha awards are presented to institutions for outstanding achievements in the use of Hindi language to ministries/departments, banks and financial institutions, public sector undertakings and employees. CHAIRMAN (PERSON IN NEWS) Dr. Amrita Patel: Chairman National Dairy Development Board. Recently decided to resign.(although Mohan wanted her to continue). After Vergese Kurien, the father of white revolution, she has been managing NDDB.
Timeline of Operation Flood 1965 NDDB setup. 1970 NDDB launches Operation flood. 1996 The End of Operation flood. Operation flood had three objectives: Increase milk production (“a flood of milk”) Increase farmers’ income. Reasonable milk prices for consumers Op.Flood setup following hierarchy of dairy cooperatives LEVEL Org. VILLAGE Primary Village Cooperative Society DISTRICT District Union STATE State Federations NATIONAL NDDB Operation flood worked in three phases from 1970 to 1996: PHASE-1 Setup dairy cooperatives in 10 states and link them with four metropolitan cities: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai.
Finance: by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil gifted by the European Union PHASE-2 Karnataka, Rajasthan, MP Connected more than 40,000 villages and 4 million farmers in the dairy cooperative umbrella. finance: by World bank loan PHASE-3 To consolidate the gains made from previous phases. Vaccination, Breeding research, artificial insemination, farmers’ training etc. The end: 1996 Result of Operation Flood Made India the largest Milk producer of the world.
Imports of milk solids ended. Our milk requirements now met through desi-dairies. (Otherwise imagine, if we were still relying on “imported” milk, like imported crude oil – than what will be the current account deficit and rupee’s downfall!) How Dairy cooperatives lead to “EMPOWERMENT”? CONSUMER EMPOWERMENT Per capita milk availability increased. Reduced the regional imbalance in milk availability.
Reduced the seasonal variation in milk prices. ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT Farmers connected in cooperative dairy grid=no exploitation, increased income. Village dairy cooperatives= less nuisance than APMC / food grain middlemen. SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT Milk production doesn’t require much land. Even landless poor can participate. Village Milk Cooperatives bypassed the feudal power structure associated with cropping/foodgrains in villages.
It covered farmers from all castes and religion. In that way, operation flood was more successful in Social empowerment than land reforms and Panchayati raj. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Many women dairy cooperatives were setup. (Particularly during and after phase III) Women became direct members and office bearers of such cooperatives and started earning. You may have seen in the latest Amul ad “Maari bairi sethani thai gayi che”: translated “my wife has become a Sethani” (thanks to dairy income from Amul.
) (Although given in previous article, but copy pasting again for the sake of continuity during reading-revision) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries They run following schemes: install Bulk Milk Coolers at village level close to the area of milk production for installation of bulk milk cooler Intensive Dairy Development Scheme (IDDS) 100 per cent grants in aid given to provided to Dairy Milk Unions/Federations: for Dairy processing and marketing for milk equipment for bulk milk coolers, chilling centers, refrigerated tankers and cold storage for developing dairy infrastructure at the village and district level.
Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS) to encourage entrepreneurs in setting up modern dairy infrastructure for clean milk production helps in bulk milk coolers, transportation facilities including refrigerated vans, cold storage facility fodder Centrally Sponsored Fodder and Feed Development Scheme (CSFFDS) with help of state governments clean milk Official name: “Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality & Clean Milk Production” trains of farmers on good milking practices Fund to setup Bulk Milk Cooler (BMC) @village level.
fund to setup laboratories for testing of milk By National dairy development board (NDDB), with support from International Development Association (IDA) Phase-1 (2012-17) was launched at Anand, Gujarat. Scheme will run in 14 states – Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Kerala. ^These states collectively account for over 90% of country’s milk production.
National Dairy plan will do following: Breed improvement + animal nutrition=> increase milk production, reduce methane emission. Strengthen of village based milk procurement system= Rural milk producers to get greater access to the organized dairy sector. Use of ICT technology: Internet Based Dairy Information System (i-DIS), Data warehousing System along with Business Intelligence tool etc. HRD, management, knowledge sharing, R&D and other fancy stuff Funding pattern ca$h comes from International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank Central government (Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries) to NDDB: National Dairy Development Board (a statutory body) ultimately to End Implementing Agencies (EIAs): State Government Cooperative dairy federations Milk Producers Unions ICAR institutes, and veterinary/dairy institutes and universities Mock Questions on Milk Supply Chain Management MCQs Correct Statements about Foot and mouth disease(FMD) It is caused by brucellosis bacteria Wild animals are immune to FMD FMD is usually lethal to Adult buffalo None of above Incorrect Statement about Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) Pigs are considered amplifying hosts for FMD Pigs themselves are immune to FMD Both None Find odd term Sahiwal Murrah Gir Kankrej Correct statement about Azolla fern It is a weed that negatively affects paddy cultivation.
If Azolla fern is mixed with fodder, it improves the health of cattle. both none Why is caustic soda used in manufacturing of synthetic milk? To act as an emulsifying agent and give frothy appearance to the liquid. To neutralize the acidity of other ingredients and stops milk from turning sour To increase the milk fat content None of above Correct statements about National Dairy plan It’ll be uniformly applied to all 28 states of India, in its first phase.
International Development Association will finance part of this project. Both None Descriptive 2m NDDB Intensive Dairy Development Scheme (IDDS) Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS) 12m Write a note on NDDB and its contribution in white revolution. National Dairy Plan (NDP) is a scientifically planned multi-state initiative to improve milch animal productivity. Comment Write a note on the functions of Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries.
25m The destruction of India’s village system was the greatest of England’s blunders. Government initiatives to boost the milk productivity in India. Dairy cooperatives have played an important role in the women empowerment and social transformation of rural India. Comment Write a note on the upstream and Milk Supply Chain: Downstream Issues in the dairy sector of India. Essay (200m) Education remains the key to both economic and political empowerment.
There is more potential for economic growth in rural India than at any time in decades. The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow. Emigration, forced or chosen, is the quintessential experience of our time. The notion of the world as a village is becoming a reality. A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual doom.
See Also: Baby Milk Cow
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The cow is, at the least, an animal domesticated by man for help in agricultural activities. Although the mighty machines now used in farming have made these animals irrelevant in agriculture, valiant attempts are being made, at least in India, to preserve the exalted position of the so called ‘second mother’  or even ‘mother of the world’ [3,4]. The stringent agitations to protect the ‘cow-mother’ [4,5] and even riots and murders of dalits for the sake of the cow,[6,7] suggest that the human life is far less important than a dead cow in this part of the world.
 This extraordinary reverence for the cow has led to the development and marketing of many ‘products’ made from the secretions and excretions of the cow, with claims that these products may be more ‘lucrative’ than even the dairy. ‘Cow Products’ The list of ‘products’ developed from the milk and excreta of the cow is quite long. Panchagavyaand cow urine distillate (gau arka) are the most quoted of these preparations.
Panchagavya is a blend of five (pancha) products obtained from the cow (gavya = from gau) – the dung, urine, milk, ghee and curd.[9,10] Three preparations of cow’s urine, namely gau-mutra asav (fermented preparation), gau-arka (or distillate) and Ganavati (or tablet) are also used as medicines.[8,11] Two US patents have also been obtained for the gau -arka  and this fact has been highlighted over and over again.
Various products from the cow have been suggested as a successful remedy against more than hundred diseases, from fever to cancer.[8,11,12] Panchagavya is most reverentially used as a ‘body and soul cleanser’, following the birth or death of a family member. It has also been suggested as a medicine and more profusely as a pesticidal spray for plants and as a soil enriching manure. Very recently, panchagavya has been suggested as a remedy for chikungunya as well.
 Cow’s urine has been used in the preparations of hair oil, shampoo, skin cream etc. Preparations like soap, nasal powder, body powder, body cream, incense sticks, tooth powder etc. have been prepared from the cow dung and recommended for medical use. Probably to add sanctity to the entire gamut of these ‘medications’, it has been claimed that Indian pure breed cows have ‘immunology power’ from 90% to 98% while the cows of mixed breed have less than 40%.
 The ‘evidence’: Curious to know about Panchagavya, I asked an Ayurveda physician about its utility. She briefed me about all the virtues of the gau mutra (cow’s urine), gau maya (cow dung) and Panchagavya, quoting the Charaka Samhita. But how can we, living in the 21st century, rely on an ancient text to justify the use of these excreta, I wondered. All these have been well studied by Charaka, she told me.
May be, but the concept of biochemical molecules (and the modern biochemical analysers) and of microbes (and the means of isolating them) were non-existent during Charaka’s time, I countered. But the cow’s urine hasn’t changed since Charaka’s time, she averred. I was dumbstruck! Most articles on the virtues of cow’s excreta extensively quote from scriptures and the Charaka Samhita. Here are some of these arguments: The cow is our mother and we are her children.
Therefore cow urine is beneficial.[8,11] Diseases are caused by imbalance of elements bile, mucous and air and cow urine balances elements. Amongst urines, cow urine is best. Ganga resides in the cow urine and it contains copper and gold salts, which are elixirs. It does not decay, older the cow urine, the more useful it is. Recently a lot has been written about the patents for cow urine; one obtained on the basis of laboratory studies (on culture plates and cell lines) on the usefulness of cow urine distillate in enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics and anti cancer drugs, [14,15] and the other patent obtained for cow urine therapy.
 There are reports of the use of cow’s urine therapy from Myanmar  and of a cow’s urine concoction used as a traditional remedy for convulsive seizures in Nigeria. There have also been reports of studies on the cow’s urine distillate in gouty arthritis, lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear cells and carbon tetrachloride poisoning, all done on experimental animals in small numbers.[19-22] These results have been extrapolated freely and wild conclusions have been drawn about the ‘magical powers’ of the cow’s urine in treating almost all the diseases afflicting mankind today.
[14,17] Even the Department of Animal Husbandry of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, has published reports that seek to promote the marketing of cow’s urine as a therapeutic agent. The facts: Faced with this blitzkrieg of marketing of cow’s urine and the real danger that cow’s urine and other products of cow’s excreta may be pushed into the throats of hapless patients, with active support from the govt.
, agencies., it is time we look into the facts. One need not go far to see the hypocrisy of the ‘cow urine promoters’ than have a look at the ayurveda texts themselves, extensively quoted as the primary source of support for the utility of cow’s urine as a therapeutic agent. All three major ancient texts of ayurveda, by Charaka (1st-2nd century), Susruta (3rd –4th century) and Vagbhata (7th century) mention of the therapeutic uses of beef[24,25] as well, but this fact is no where mentioned by the proponents of cow’s urine.
Eating beef is a sin and drinking cow’s urine or eating its dung brings health, if these self-styled guardians of ancient Indian tradition are to be believed. What about the much touted patents for cow’s urine? A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor to prevent or exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing the invention. Nothing more, nothing less.
A patent in itself cannot be the proof for the utility of any product. It is hardly surprising that while International patents have been registered for cow’s urine and its products, no such patent has been obtained from the Govt. of India. An Indian patent may not make enough and weighty news, but an international patent, on the other, helps to claim that even ‘foreigners’ have accepted the virtues of cow’s urine! All the studies available in the literature about the therapeutic efficacy of cow’s excreta are small studiesconducted in the labs and on animals or tissues.
There are no reports of any controlled, double blind clinical studies in humans, other than some anecdotal reports and claims by the practitioners of ‘cow therapy’ and all these so called claims of research appear dubious by any scientific standards. Most of these papers contradict their own claims: the claims made about the gold and copper salts in urine, for example, are not supported by the data provided by the protagonists themselves.
[8,28] Urine is urine, the liquid waste that is filtered by the kidneys and excreted through the urinary system. It contains many solutes and biological products that are unnecessary for the living body and hence excreted and also some substances secreted by the urinary tract to facilitate this excretion. Chemical constituents of human and animal urine are almost alike.[28,29] For example, Urokinase is an enzyme secreted into the urine to prevent its clogging; today, it is extracted from human urine and used to dissolve clots in the coronary arteries in patients who suffer a heart attack.
 Does this justify drinking one’s own urine in case of a heart attack? Far from it. Is cow’s urine safe for mankind? There are reports of severe adverse effects, even fatal, of drinking cow urine concoctions, further supported by experimental evidence. Cow’s urine can also be a source of infectious diseases, especially leptospirosis,  that can spread through oral mucosa. The claim that cow’s urine and cow dung have antiseptic properties is not only baseless, but also dangerously misleading.
While cow dung (and all fecal matter) is teeming with bacteria excreted from the intestines, several bacteria have been isolated from Panchagavya too.[33,34] Application of these bacteria-rich excreta onto wounds may lead to life threatening sepsis. Only those who are absolutely ignorant about such facts can daringly market cow’s excreta as antiseptics, but the tragedy is that some practitioners of modern medicine, blinded by their faiths in their ‘spiritual heads’ or ‘Mathadhipathis’ also appear to support such nonsense.
Conclusions: It is clear that cow’s urine and other excreta are only the waste products rejected by the animal’s body and are similar to the excreta of other animals and therefore, there is absolutely no reason why the cow’s urine or other excreta should be venerable over those of humans beings or other animals. The claims of the efficacy of cow’s excreta (and their products) in the treatment of almost every disease are not supported by any evidence and there are no clinical trials reported on the use of these products in human beings.
With reports available about the possible adverse effects of the use of cow’s excreta, it is shocking that such products are being allowed to be not only marketed but also trumpeted, even supported by the agencies of the govt. of India, as the ‘cure-for-all’ wonder drugs. Propaganda regarding the utility of cow’s excreta largely emanates from the obscurantist and Hindu fundamentalist forces and appears to be designed to condemn the ordinary human beings into ingesting cow’s excreta under the alibi of ‘treatment’ and ‘long life’.
This is not surprising at all, given the several instances of the down trodden dalits forced into eating even human excreta by the same fundamentalists. Eulogising the cow (and not buffalo and other cattle that are equally ‘useful’) as ‘second mother’, ‘God mother’, ‘mother of the world’ etc., largely because it provides milk, (and hopefully not because of its excreta) raises a fundamental question about the concept of motherhood itself: Do we love and respect our own mothers solely because we have been breastfed and is motherhood only about milk? This entire exercise of marketing the cow’s products and promising huge economic benefits (a claim not supported by any data) of keeping the cows even after they have passed the age of secreting milk is part of the grand design to prevent the slaughtering of the cows so as to deprive the poor sections of the society from quality meat as well as some economic benefits of marketing the beef.
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