For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). An uncooked rib roast Wagyu cattle are an example of a breed raised primarily for beef. Beef as part of a meal with potatoes and spinach Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and essential nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be cut into roasts, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, rump steak, rib steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak, etc.
). Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the United States as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters).
Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is very similar. According to the most recent National Beef Quality Audit, heifer carcasses had slightly more marbling than steer carcasses, but USDA quality grade was not significantly different. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies.
The meat from older bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (known as ground beef in the United States). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil.
According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. Cows are considered sacred in the Hinduism and most observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef.
In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef, (including buffalo meat), were India (buffalo meat only), Brazil and Australia. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Canada, Paraguay, Mexico, Argentina, Belarus and Nicaragua. Etymology The word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow which is from Middle English cou (both words have the same Indo-European root *gʷou-).
 After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them.
This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry.Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. History People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux, show aurochs in hunting scenes.
People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef, milk, and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent. It is unknown exactly when people started cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the Old World as draft animals (oxen), for milk, or specifically for human consumption.
With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey, Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss (Braunvieh). In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest.
Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Farming of beef cattle Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching, backgrounding and Intensive animal farming.
Typically, the production of one pound (0.45 kg) of cooked beef requires 27 lb (12 kg) of fodder, over 200 US gal (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water and nearly three hundred square feet (28 m2) of land. Cuts Main article: Cut of beef Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut.
The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.
Special beef designations Breed and origin based designations Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare Certified Angus Beef (CAB) in Canada and the United States is a specification-based, branded-beef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers to increase demand for their breed of cattle, by promoting the impression that Angus cattle have consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste.
The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms Angus Beef or Black Angus Beef are loosely and commonly misused or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the food service industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef cannot be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so. In the UK the equivalent is Aberdeen Angus, marketed as higher quality and associated with stricter animal welfare rules.
Notable for the herd being free of BSE during the BSE epidemic in the UK. Similar schemes are used elsewhere as in Certified Angus Beef in Ireland. Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle. Kobe beef is pure Tajima-gyu breed bull, that was born, raised, and slaughtered solely within the Hyogo prefecture. Very limited amounts of Kobe are exported. The EU recognizes the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands: Spain – Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela, Ternera Galega France – Taureau de Camargue, Boeuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du Maine Portugal – Carne Alentejana, Carne Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa United Kingdom – Orkney Beef, Scotch Beef, Welsh Beef Belgium – Belgian Blue Process based designations Some certifications are based upon the way the cattle are treated fed and or slaughtered.
Grass-fed beef cattle have been raised exclusively on forage. Grain-fed beef cattle are raised primarily on forage, but are "finished" in a feedlot. Halal beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws. Kosher beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. Organic beef is produced without added hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals, though requirements for labeling it organic vary widely.
Output based standards Some standards are based upon the inspected quality of the meat after slaughter. Beef grading Countries regulate the marketing and sale of Beef by observing criteria post slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat. This classification, sometimes optional, can suggest a market demand for a particular animal's attributes and therefore the price owed to the producer.
See also: Beef carcass classification and Food grading Aging and tenderization Main article: Beef aging Further information: Meat § Conditioning, Meat preservation, and Meat tenderness To improve tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss.
Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects.
The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins.
Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor. Cooking and preparation Cooked ground beef.
These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs. Dry heat Roast beef cooked under high heat Method Description Grilling is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 340 °C (650 °F). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorsome crust. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany and The Netherlands, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ".
When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling. Barbecue refers to a technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire. Broiling is a term used in North America. It is similar to grilling, but with the heat source always above the meat. Elsewhere this is considered a way of grilling. Griddle Meat may be cooked on a hot metal griddle.
A little oil or fat may be added to inhibit sticking; the dividing line when the method becomes shallow frying is not well-defined. Roasting is a way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat.
Roasting is suitable for thicker pieces of meat; the other methods listed are usually for steaks and similar cuts. Internal temperature Main article: Doneness Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.
Frying Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables.
The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'. Moist heat Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking. Stewing or simmering simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings.
This technique may be used as part of pressure cooking. Braising cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step. Sous-vide Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking.
The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food. Beef roasted with vinegar and sliced with spiced paste, often called "cold beef". Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract.
Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) (sous-vide) to 90 °C (194 °F) (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and pasteurization can be achieved.
Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after). Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely.
The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.) Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques.
In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat. Raw beef Sliced beef Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef).
More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian or Dutch dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich.
Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese and Syrian dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten (upon availability). Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces.
The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg. Cured, smoked, and dried beef Beef curry in Dhaka, Bangladesh Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour.
It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty." Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.
Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region.
Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after. There are various other recipes for pickled beef.
Sauerbraten is a German variant. Religious prohibitions Main article: Cattle in religion A pamphlet protesting against the Muslim practice of beef-eating. The propagandists equate the Muslims to the demon in the far right and the sacred cow as Kamadhenu. It was run by the Ravi Varma Press (c. 1912). Most Hindus consider killing cattle and eating beef a sin. However, they do not consider the cow to be a god and they do not worship it.
Bovines have a sacred status in India especially the cow, from the idealization due to their provision of sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be integral to the landscape. India is a developing country; many of its rural area economies depend upon cattle farming, hence they have been revered in the society. From vedic periods role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like ploughing, row planting, ridging, and weeding made people to revere the importance of cow in their daily lives, and this rose with the advent of Jainism and Gupta period.
 Lack of secular tolerance and caste politics has also given birth to Hindu right-wing vigilante cow protection groups. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that has led to loss of human life and in an 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause. A. N. Bose in Social and Rural Economy of Northern India says any taboo or the cow worship itself is a relatively recent development in India.
The sacred white Cow is considered as the abode of 33 crore Hindu Deities. Products of Cow's milk like curd, butter, cheese, milk sweets are sold commercially and used in religious rituals. Other animals that Hindus consider sacred are, the monkey (Hanuman), the elephant and rat (Ganesha), the tiger (Durga). For religious reasons the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine.
 During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians and Catholics give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws. Legal prohibition India Main article: Cattle slaughter in India India is one of the biggest exporters of beef.
Though some states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by Caste And Religion based Politics. Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts conclude so, however certain Hindu castes and sects avoid beef from their diets. In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of cattle and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
Though the original act permits the humane slaughter of animals for food. Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone in meat, carcass, half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited and is not permitted to be exported. Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export. In 2017 India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that with the total ban of beef product export from India there would be market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers.
They estimate there would be a twenty per cent shortage of beef and thirteen per cent shortage of leather in the world market. Cuba In 2003, Cuba banned cow slaughter due to severe shortage of milk and milk products. Nutrition and health Ground Beef 15% fat, broiled Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,047 kJ (250 kcal) Carbohydrates 0 g Starch 0 g Dietary fiber 0 g Fat 15 g Saturated 5.
887 g Monounsaturated 6.662 g Polyunsaturated 0.485 g Protein 26 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.046 mg Riboflavin (B2) (15%) 0.176 mg Niacin (B3) (36%) 5.378 mg Vitamin B6 (29%) 0.383 mg Folate (B9) (2%) 9 μg Vitamin B12 (110%) 2.64 μg Choline (17%) 82.4 mg Vitamin D (1%) 7 IU Vitamin E (3%) 0.45 mg Vitamin K (1%) 1.2 μg Minerals Calcium (2%) 18 mg Copper (43%) 0.85 mg Iron (20%) 2.
6 mg Magnesium (6%) 21 mg Manganese (1%) 0.012 mg Phosphorus (28%) 198 mg Potassium (7%) 318 mg Selenium (31%) 21.6 μg Sodium (5%) 72 mg Zinc (66%) 6.31 mg Other constituents Water 58 g Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient Database Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, iron, phosphorus and zinc.
 Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking. Health concerns See also: Red meat § Human health Cancer Excessive consumption of red processed meat is known to increase the risk of bowel cancer and some other cancers. Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease The Harvard School of Public Health recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat.
 This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus." This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease.
More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat." Dioxins Some cattle raised in the United States feed on pastures fertilized with sewage sludge. Elevated dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle. Recalls Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the United States, due to Escherichia coli (E.
coli) contamination: January 2011, One Great Burger expands recall. February 2011, American Food Service, a Pico Rivera, Calif. establishment, is recalling approximately 3,170 pounds (1,440 kg) of fresh ground beef patties and other bulk packages of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. March 2011, 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) beef recalled by Creekstone Farms Premium Beef due to E.
coli concerns. April 2011, National Beef Packaging recalled more than 60,000 pounds (27,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination. May 2011, Irish Hills Meat Company of Michigan, a Tipton, Mich., establishment is recalling approximately 900 pounds (410 kg) of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. September 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 131,100 pounds (59,500 kg) of ground beef due to E.
coli contamination. December 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination. January 2012, Hannaford Supermarkets recalled all ground beef with sell by dates 17 December 2011 or earlier. September 2012, XL Foods recalled more than 1800 products believed to be contaminated with E. coli 0157:H7. The recalled products were produced at the company's plant in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; this was the largest recall of its kind in Canadian History.
 Mad cow disease Main article: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom. Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta, Canada, the American border was closed to live Canadian cattle, but was reopened in early 2005.
 In June 2005 Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. Clifford would not identify the ranch, calling that "privileged information." The 12-year-old animal was alive at the time when Oprah Winfrey raised concerns about cannibalistic feeding practices on her show which aired 16 April 1996.
In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban. EU Regulation No 999/2001 had outlined a complete ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle. A regulation that modified Annex IV of 999/2001, was published in 2013 that allowed for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.
 World producers Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries – 2016 Beef exports, including buffalo meat, in metric tons(2016) Rank Country 2015 %of the World 1 Brazil 1,850,000 19.60% 1 India 1,850,000 19.60% 3 Australia 1,385,000 14.67% 4 United States 1,120,000 11.87% 5 New Zealand 580,000 6.14% Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009,2010)  Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009) Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg 1 United States 11,889 11,789 −0.
8% 2 Brazil 8,935 9,300 4% 3 EU-27 7,970 7,920 −0.6% 4 China 5,764 5,550 −4% 5 Argentina 3,400 2,800 −18% 6 India 2,610 2,760 6% 7 Australia 2,100 2,075 −1% 8 Mexico 1,700 1,735 2% 9 Russia 1,285 1,260 −2% 10 Pakistan 1,226 1,250 2% National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head) Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg 1 India 57,960 58,300 0.6% 2 Brazil 49,150 49,400 0.5% 3 China 42,572 41,000 −4% 4 United States 35,819 35,300 −1.
4% 5 EU-27 30,400 30,150 −0.8% 6 Argentina 12,300 13,200 7% 7 Australia 9,213 10,158 10% 8 Russia 7,010 6,970 −0.6% 9 Mexico 6,775 6,797 0.3% 10 Colombia 5,675 5,675 0.0% See also Argentine beef Beef Australia Beef hormone controversy Carnism Entrecôte List of beef dishes List of meat animals Pink slime References ^ Piatti-Farnell, Lorna (2013). Beef: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.
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Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2015. ^ "Regulation No 999/2001". EU. 22 May 2001. Retrieved 28 September 2015. ^ "EU Commission Regulation No 56/2013". EU Commission. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2015. ^ http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-exports-ranking-countries-0-106903 ^ Daily Livestock Report – Vol. 8, No. 126/ 30 June 2010 External links Find more aboutBeefat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Beef at Wikibook Cookbooks USDA beef grading standards (PDF) Nutrition Facts for Various Cuts of Beef Many different meat cut charts The Story of Beef in Nebraska, the Beef State with videos, history, life cycle, issues, and culture Beef State Documentary produced by Nebraska Educational Telecommunications v t e Beef and veal Production Argentine beef Beef cattle Cow-calf operation Feeder cattle Kobe beef Organic beef Products Cuts Blade steak Brisket Chateaubriand steak Chuck steak Fajita Filet mignon Flank steak Flap steak Hanger steak Plate Ranch steak Restructured steak Rib eye Rib steak Round Rump Short loin Short ribs Shoulder tender Sirloin Top sirloin Skirt steak Spare ribs Standing rib roast Strip Shank T-bone Tenderloin Tri-tip Trotters Tail Processed Jerky Aged Bresaola Cabeza Corned beef Frankfurter Rindswurst Ground Montreal smoked Pastrami Meat extract Offal Brain Heart Tongue Tendon Tripas Tripe Testicles Dishes Beefsteak List of steak dishes Blanquette de veau Beef Wellington Beef bourguignon Beef bun Beef Manhattan Beef noodle soup Beef on weck Beef Stroganoff Boiled beef Bulgogi Calf's liver and bacon Cheesesteak Chicken fried steak Cordon bleu Dendeng Feu French dip Ginger beef Galbi Gored gored Gyūdon Hamburg steak Hortobágyi palacsinta Iga penyet Italian beef Jellied veal Karađorđeva šnicla Kitfo London broil Mongolian beef Neobiani Ossobuco Pot roast Pozharsky cutlet P'tcha Ragout fin Rawon Rendang Roast beef Roast beef sandwich Salisbury steak Saltimbocca Sha cha beef Shooter's sandwich Steak and kidney pudding Steak Diane Steak and eggs Steak and oyster pie Steak au poivre Tartare Tafelspitz Tongseng Veal Milanese Veal Orloff Veal Oscar Vitello tonnato Wallenbergare Related meats American bison Beefalo Water buffalo Żubroń Other Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Beef hormone controversy Beef ring Carcass grade Darkcutter Meat on the bone Ractopamine - Beef USA beef imports Japan Taiwan South Korea (2008 US beef protest in South Korea) v t e Meat Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood Poultry and game Alligator Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison Livestock andminilivestock Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak Fish and seafood Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale Cuts and preparation Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare List articles Beef dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat dishes Lamb dishes Meatball dishes Pork dishes Ham dishes Sausage dishes Sausages Seafood dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal dishes Meat consumption Related subjects Animal rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat cutter Meat tenderness Pescetarianism Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat Meat paradox Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter Slaughterhouse Veganism Vegetarianism White meat Authority control LCCN: sh85012809 NDL: 00562737 Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beef&oldid=823208724"See Also: How Does A Dairy Cow Produce Milk
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This article is about the fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. For milk derived from plants, see Plant milk. For other uses of the word, see Milk (disambiguation). A glass of pasteurized cow's milk Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food.
Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows.India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products.
 The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk.
 Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households. Etymology The term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc (West Saxon), milc (Anglian), from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk" (source also of Old Norse mjolk, Old Frisian melok, Old Saxon miluk, Dutch melk, Old High German miluh, German Milch, Gothic miluks)".
 Types of consumption Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. Nutrition for infant mammals Main articles: Breastfeeding and Lactation Breastfeeding to provide a mother's milk A goat kid feeding on its mother's milk In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later.
The early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors. The makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for at least two years.
 In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, and a host of allergic reactions. Food product for humans The Holstein Friesian cattle is the dominant breed in industrialized dairy farms today In many cultures, especially in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals (especially cattle, goats and sheep) as a food product.
Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood. This mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed.
 People process milk into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and cheese. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs.
The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. Those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however, often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, reindeer and camels.
India is the largest producer and consumer of cattle and buffalo milk in the world. Per capita consumption of milk and milk products in selected countries in 2011 Country Milk (liters) Cheese (kg) Butter (kg) Ireland 135.6 6.7 2.4 Finland 127.0 22.5 4.1 United Kingdom 105.9 10.9 3.0 Australia 105.3 11.7 4.0 Sweden 90.1 19.1 1.7 Canada 78.4 12.3 2.5 United States 75.8 15.1 2.8 Europe 62.
8 17.1 3.6 Brazil 55.7 3.6 0.4 France 55.5 26.3 7.5 Italy 54.2 21.8 2.3 Germany 51.8 22.9 5.9 Greece 49.1 23.4 0.7 Netherlands 47.5 19.4 3.3 India 39.5 - 3.5 China 9.1 - 0.1 Terminology In food use, the term milk is defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing.
" This definition thereby precludes non-animal products which may resemble milk in color and texture (milk substitutes) such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. The correct name for such products are 'soy beverage', 'rice beverage', etc. Dairy relates to milk and milk production, e.g. dairy products. In addition, a substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute.
 Evolution of lactation The mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested that the original function of lactation (milk production) was keeping eggs moist. Much of the argument is based on monotremes (egg-laying mammals). The original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion gradually became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time.
 Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on their dental replacement patterns. History Drinking milk in Germany in 1932 Humans first learned to consume the milk of other mammals regularly following the domestication of animals during the Neolithic Revolution or the development of agriculture. This development occurred independently in several global locations from as early as 9000–7000 BC in Mesopotamia to 3500–3000 BC in the Americas.
 People first domesticated the most important dairy animals—cattle, sheep and goats—in Southwest Asia, although domestic cattle had been independently derived from wild aurochs populations several times since. Initially animals were kept for meat, and archaeologist Andrew Sherratt has suggested that dairying, along with the exploitation of domestic animals for hair and labor, began much later in a separate secondary products revolution in the fourth millennium BC.
 Sherratt's model is not supported by recent findings, based on the analysis of lipid residue in prehistoric pottery, that shows that dairying was practiced in the early phases of agriculture in Southwest Asia, by at least the seventh millennium BC. From Southwest Asia domestic dairy animals spread to Europe (beginning around 7000 BC but did not reach Britain and Scandinavia until after 4000 BC), and South Asia (7000–5500 BC).
 The first farmers in central Europe and Britain milked their animals. Pastoral and pastoral nomadic economies, which rely predominantly or exclusively on domestic animals and their products rather than crop farming, were developed as European farmers moved into the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the fourth millennium BC, and subsequently spread across much of the Eurasian steppe. Sheep and goats were introduced to Africa from Southwest Asia, but African cattle may have been independently domesticated around 7000–6000 BC.
 Camels, domesticated in central Arabia in the fourth millennium BC, have also been used as dairy animals in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The earliest Egyptian records of burn treatments describe burn dressings using milk from mothers of male babies. In the rest of the world (i.e., East and Southeast Asia, the Americas and Australia) milk and dairy products were historically not a large part of the diet, either because they remained populated by hunter-gatherers who did not keep animals or the local agricultural economies did not include domesticated dairy species.
Milk consumption became common in these regions comparatively recently, as a consequence of European colonialism and political domination over much of the world in the last 500 years. In the Middle Ages, milk was called the "virtuous white liquor" because alcoholic beverages were safer to consume than water. Industrialization Preserved Express Dairies three-axle milk tank wagon at the Didcot Railway Centre, based on an SR chassis The growth in urban population, coupled with the expansion of the railway network in the mid-19th century, brought about a revolution in milk production and supply.
Individual railway firms began transporting milk from rural areas to London from the 1840s and 1850s. Possibly the first such instance was in 1846, when St Thomas's Hospital in Southwark contracted with milk suppliers outside London to ship milk by rail. The Great Western Railway was an early and enthusiastic adopter, and began to transport milk into London from Maidenhead in 1860, despite much criticism.
By 1900, the company was transporting over 25 million gallons annually. The milk trade grew slowly through the 1860s, but went through a period of extensive, structural change in the 1870s and 1880s. Milk transportation in Salem, Tamil Nadu Urban demand began to grow, as consumer purchasing power increased and milk became regarded as a required daily commodity. Over the last three decades of the 19th century, demand for milk in most parts of the country doubled, or in some cases, tripled.
Legislation in 1875 made the adulteration of milk illegal - this combined with a marketing campaign to change the image of milk. The proportion of rural imports by rail as a percentage of total milk consumption in London grew from under 5% in the 1860s to over 96% by the early 20th century. By that point, the supply system for milk was the most highly organized and integrated of any food product. 1959 milk supply in Oberlech, Vorarlberg, Austria The first glass bottle packaging for milk was used in the 1870s.
The first company to do so may have been the New York Dairy Company in 1877. The Express Dairy Company in England began glass bottle production in 1880. In 1884, Hervey Thatcher, an American inventor from New York, invented a glass milk bottle, called 'Thatcher's Common Sense Milk Jar', which was sealed with a waxed paper disk. Later, in 1932, plastic-coated paper milk cartons were introduced commercially.
 In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverages and food products. He developed this method while on summer vacation in Arbois, to remedy the frequent acidity of the local wines. He found out experimentally that it is sufficient to heat a young wine to only about 50–60 °C (122–140 °F) for a brief time to kill the microbes, and that the wine could be nevertheless properly aged without sacrificing the final quality.
 In honor of Pasteur, the process became known as "pasteurization". Pasteurization was originally used as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring. Commercial pasteurizing equipment was produced in Germany in the 1880s, and producers adopted the process in Copenhagen and Stockholm by 1885. Overproduction Continued improvements in the efficiency of milk production led to a worldwide glut of milk by 2016.
Russia and China became self-sufficient and stopped importing milk. Canada has tried to restrict milk production by forcing new farmers/increased capacity to "buy in" at CN$24,000 per cow. Importing milk is prohibited. The European Union theoretically stopped subsidizing dairy farming in 2015. Direct subsidies were replaced by "environmental incentives" which results in the government buying milk when the price falls to €200 per 1,000 litres (220 imp gal; 260 US gal).
The United States has a voluntary insurance program that pays farmers depending upon the price of milk and the cost of feed. Sources Modern dairy farm in Norway The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk, but cow's milk dominates commercial production. In 2011, FAO estimates 85% of all milk worldwide was produced from cows. Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, human milk banks collect donated human breastmilk and redistribute it to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.
) but who cannot breastfeed. In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk. Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production. About 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins.
 Other dairy cows in the United States include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey and Milking Shorthorn (Dairy Shorthorn). Sources aside from cows Other significant sources of milk Goats (2% of world's milk) Buffaloes (11%) Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products. These animals include buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, donkey, horse, reindeer and yak.
The first four respectively produced about 11%, 2%, 1.4% and 0.2% of all milk worldwide in 2011. In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. According to the US National Bison Association, American bison (also called American buffalo) are not milked commercially; however, various sources report cows resulting from cross-breeding bison and domestic cattle are good milk producers, and have been used both during the European settlement of North America and during the development of commercial Beefalo in the 1970s and 1980s.
 Swine are almost never milked, even though their milk is similar to cow's milk and perfectly suitable for human consumption. The main reason for this is that milking a sow's numerous small teats is very cumbersome, and that sows can't store their milk as cows can. A few pig farms do sell pig cheese as a novelty item; these cheeses are exceedingly expensive. Production worldwide Main article: Dairy farming Top ten cow milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 United States 91,271,058 2 India 60,600,000 3 China 35,310,000 4 Brazil 34,255,236 5 Germany 31,122,000 6 Russia 30,285,969 7 France 23,714,357 8 New Zealand 18,883,000 9 Turkey 16,655,009 10 United Kingdom 13,941,000 Top ten sheep milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 China 1,540,000 2 Turkey 1,101,013 3 Greece 705,000 4 Syria 684,578 5 Romania 632,582 6 Spain 600,568 7 Sudan 540,000 8 Somalia 505,000 9 Iran 470,000 10 Italy 383,837 Top ten goat milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 India 5,000,000 2 Bangladesh 2,616,000 3 Sudan 1,532,000 4 Pakistan 801,000 5 Mali 720,000 6 France 580,694 7 Spain 471,999 8 Turkey 415,743 9 Somalia 400,000 10 Greece 340,000 Top ten buffalo milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 India 70,000,000 2 Pakistan 24,370,000 3 China 3,050,000 4 Egypt 2,614,500 5 Nepal 1,188,433 6 Myanmar 309,000 7 Italy 194,893 8 Sri Lanka 65,000 9 Iran 65,000 10 Turkey 51,947 In 2012, the largest producer of milk and milk products was India followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.
 All 28 European Union members together produced 153.8 million tonnes of milk in 2013, the largest by any politico-economic union. Increasing affluence in developing countries, as well as increased promotion of milk and milk products, has led to a rise in milk consumption in developing countries in recent years. In turn, the opportunities presented by these growing markets have attracted investments by multinational dairy firms.
Nevertheless, in many countries production remains on a small scale and presents significant opportunities for diversification of income sources by small farms. Local milk collection centers, where milk is collected and chilled prior to being transferred to urban dairies, are a good example of where farmers have been able to work on a cooperative basis, particularly in countries such as India.
 Production yields Child milking a cow by hand FAO reports Israel dairy farms are the most productive in the world, with a yield of 12,546 kilograms (27,659 lb) milk per cow per year. This survey over 2001 and 2007 was conducted by ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording) across 17 developed countries. The survey found that the average herd size in these developed countries increased from 74 to 99 cows per herd between 2001 and 2007.
A dairy farm had an average of 19 cows per herd in Norway, and 337 in New Zealand. Annual milk production in the same period increased from 7,726 to 8,550 kg (17,033 to 18,850 lb) per cow in these developed countries. The lowest average production was in New Zealand at 3,974 kg (8,761 lb) per cow. The milk yield per cow depended on production systems, nutrition of the cows, and only to a minor extent different genetic potential of the animals.
What the cow ate made the most impact on the production obtained. New Zealand cows with the lowest yield per year grazed all year, in contrast to Israel with the highest yield where the cows ate in barns with an energy-rich mixed diet. The milk yield per cow in the United States, the world's largest cow milk producer, was 9,954 kg (21,945 lb) per year in 2010. In contrast, the milk yields per cow in India and China – the second and third largest producers – were respectively 1,154 kg (2,544 lb) and 2,282 kg (5,031 lb) per year.
 Price It was reported in 2007 that with increased worldwide prosperity and the competition of bio-fuel production for feed stocks, both the demand for and the price of milk had substantially increased worldwide. Particularly notable was the rapid increase of consumption of milk in China and the rise of the price of milk in the United States above the government subsidized price. In 2010 the Department of Agriculture predicted farmers would receive an average of $1.
35 per US gallon of cow's milk (35 cents per liter), which is down 30 cents per gallon from 2007 and below the break-even point for many cattle farmers. Grading See also: Food grading In the United States, there are two grades of milk, with grade A primarily used for direct sales and consumption in stores, and grade B used for indirect consumption, such as in cheese making or other processing. The differences between the two grades are defined in the Wisconsin administrative code for Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, chapter 60.
 Grade B generally refers to milk that is cooled in milk cans, which are immersed in a bath of cold flowing water that typically is drawn up from an underground water well rather than using mechanical refrigeration. Physical and chemical properties Butterfat is a triglyceride (fat) formed from fatty acids such as myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids. Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.
 Because it is produced as a food source for the young, all of its contents provide benefits for growth. The principal requirements are energy (lipids, lactose, and protein), biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins (essential amino acids and amino groups), essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water. pH The pH of milk ranges from 6.4 to 6.8 and it changes over time.
Milk from other bovines and non-bovine mammals varies in composition, but has a similar pH. Lipids Main article: Butterfat Initially milk fat is secreted in the form of a fat globule surrounded by a membrane. Each fat globule is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerols and is surrounded by a membrane consisting of complex lipids such as phospholipids, along with proteins. These act as emulsifiers which keep the individual globules from coalescing and protect the contents of these globules from various enzymes in the fluid portion of the milk.
Although 97–98% of lipids are triacylglycrols, small amounts of di- and monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol and cholesterol esters, free fatty acids, and phospholipids are also present. Unlike protein and carbohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to genetic, lactational, and nutritional factor difference between different species. Like composition, fat globules vary in size from less than 0.
2 to about 15 micrometers in diameter between different species. Diameter may also vary between animals within a species and at different times within a milking of a single animal. In unhomogenized cow's milk, the fat globules have an average diameter of two to four micrometers and with homogenization, average around 0.4 micrometers. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K along with essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid are found within the milk fat portion of the milk.
 Proteins Normal bovine milk contains 30–35 grams of protein per liter of which about 80% is arranged in casein micelles. Total proteins in milk represent 3.2% of its composition (nutrition table). Caseins Main article: Casein The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles": aggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate.
Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins: αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins. Collectively, they make up around 76–86% of the protein in milk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, k-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid.
These kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid. Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins beside caseins and including enzymes. These other proteins are more water-soluble than caseins and do not form larger structures.
Because the proteins remain suspended in whey remaining when caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Whey proteins make up approximately 20% of the protein in milk by weight. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin. Salts, minerals, and vitamins Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anions within bovine milk.
Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 5–40 mM. The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calcium phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubility of solid calcium phosphate. In addition to calcium, milk is a good source of many other vitamins.
Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, E, thiamine, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, folates, and pantothenic acid are all present in milk. Calcium phosphate structure For many years the most accepted theory of the structure of a micelle was that it was composed of spherical casein aggregates, called submicelles, that were held together by calcium phosphate linkages. However, there are two recent models of the casein micelle that refute the distinct micellular structures within the micelle.
The first theory attributed to de Kruif and Holt, proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerpiece to micellular structure. Specifically in this view, unstructured proteins organize around the calcium phosphate giving rise to their structure and thus no specific structure is formed. The second theory proposed by Horne, the growth of calcium phosphate nanoclusters begins the process of micelle formation but is limited by binding phosphopeptide loop regions of the caseins.
Once bound, protein-protein interactions are formed and polymerization occurs, in which K-casein is used as an end cap, to form micelles with trapped calcium phosphate nanoclusters. Some sources indicate that the trapped calcium phosphate is in the form of Ca9(PO4)6; whereas, others say it is similar to the structure of the mineral brushite CaHPO4 -2H2O. Carbohydrates and miscellaneous contents A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose (2) and galactose (1) Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose, glucose, galactose, and other oligosaccharides.
The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose are dependent upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations that lactose in milks.
 Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells, mammary gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes. Appearance Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds (such as Guernsey and Jersey cattle) to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk.
The riboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which sometimes can be discerned in skimmed milk or whey products. Fat-free skimmed milk has only the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelength blue light more than they do red, giving skimmed milk a bluish tint. Processing Milk products and productions relationships (click to enlarge) In most Western countries, centralized dairy facilities process milk and products obtained from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese.
In the US, these dairies usually are local companies, while in the Southern Hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations such as Fonterra. Pasteurization Main article: Pasteurization § Milk Pasteurization is used to kill harmful Pathogenic bacteria by heating the milk for a short time and then immediately cooling it. Types of pasteurized milk include full cream, reduced fat, skim milk, calcium enriched, flavoured, and UHT.
 The standard high temperature short time (HTST) process of 72 °C for 15 seconds completely kills pathogenic bacteria in milk, rendering it safe to drink for up to three weeks if continually refrigerated. Dairies print best before dates on each container, after which stores remove any unsold milk from their shelves. A side effect of the heating of pasteurization is that some vitamin and mineral content is lost.
Soluble calcium and phosphorus decrease by 5%, thiamin and vitamin B12 by 10%, and vitamin C by 20%. Because losses are small in comparison to the large amount of the two B-vitamins present, milk continues to provide significant amounts of thiamin and vitamin B12. The loss of vitamin C is not nutritionally significant, as milk is not an important dietary source of vitamin C. Microfiltration Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk.
In this process, cream is separated from the skimmed milk and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the skimmed milk is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 99.999% killing of microorganisms in standard HTST pasteurization). The skimmed milk then is recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.
Creaming and homogenization A milking machine in action Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream often is sold as a separate product with its own uses. Today the separation of the cream from the milk usually is accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water.
The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow's milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can.
The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters as readily and are smaller to begin with, resulting in a slower separation of cream from these milks. Milk often is homogenized, a treatment that prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation.
 A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces. Nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation.
The exposed fat globules are vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization. Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized. It is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. Creamline (or cream-top) milk is unhomogenized.
It may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk that has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as "ultra-homogenized", has a longer shelf life than milk that has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. The homogenization process increases the shelf life of milk because it decreases the radius of fat globules and other particles (per stokes' law) thus delaying the rate of agglomeration.
UHT Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT), is a type of milk processing where all bacteria are destroyed with high heat to extend its shelf life for up to 6 months, as long as the package is not opened. Milk is firstly homogenized and then is heated to 138 degrees Celsius for 1–3 seconds. The milk is immediately cooled down and packed into a sterile container. As a result of this treatment, all the pathogenic bacteria within the milk are destroyed, unlike when the milk is just pasteurised.
The milk will now keep for up for 6 months if unopened. UHT milk does not need to be refrigerated until the package is opened, which makes it easier to ship and store. But in this process there is a loss of vitamin B1 and vitamin C and there is also a slight change in the taste of the milk. Nutrition and health See also: Fat content of milk The composition of milk differs widely among species.
Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd are among those that may vary. For example: Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Cow's milk contains, on average, 3.
4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional value further on Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales may contain more than 50% fat. Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams Constituents Unit Cow Goat Sheep Water buffalo Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1 Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.
4 4.5 Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0 ----Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2 ----Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7 ----Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 Carbohydrate (i.e. the sugar form of lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8 Calcium mg 120 100 170 195 Energy kcal 66 60 95 110 kJ 275 253 396 463 Cow's milk These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period.
Milk fat percentages Cow breed Approximate percentage Jersey 5.2 Zebu 4.7 Brown Swiss 4.0 Holstein-Friesian 3.6 The protein range for these four breeds is 3.3% to 3.9%, while the lactose range is 4.7% to 4.9%. Milk fat percentages may be manipulated by dairy farmers' stock diet formulation strategies. Mastitis infection can cause fat levels to decline. Nutritional value Nutrient contents in %DV of common foods (raw, uncooked) per 100 g Protein Fiber Vitamins Minerals Food DV Q DV A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch.
C D E K Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Cu Mn Se cooking Reduction % 10 30 20 25 25 35 0 0 30 10 15 20 10 20 5 10 25 Corn 20 55 6 1 13 4 16 4 19 19 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11 31 34 15 1 20 10 42 0 Rice 14 71 1.3 0 12 3 11 20 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 6 7 2 0 8 9 49 22 Wheat 27 51 40 0 28 7 34 19 21 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 20 36 51 12 0 28 28 151 128 Soybean(dry) 73 132 31 0 58 51 8 8 19 94 0 24 10 0 4 59 28 87 70 70 51 0 33 83 126 25 Pigeon pea(dry) 42 91 50 1 43 11 15 13 13 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 29 46 37 40 1 18 53 90 12 Potato 4 112 7.
3 0 5 2 5 3 15 4 0 0 33 0 0 2 1 4 6 6 12 0 2 5 8 0 Sweet potato 3 82 10 284 5 4 3 8 10 3 0 0 4 0 1 2 3 3 6 5 10 2 2 8 13 1 Spinach 6 119 7.3 188 5 11 4 1 10 49 0 4.5 47 0 10 604 10 15 20 5 16 3 4 6 45 1 Dill 7 32 7 154 4 17 8 4 9 38 0 0 142 0 0 0 21 37 14 7 21 3 6 7 63 0 Carrots 2 9.3 334 4 3 5 3 7 5 0 0 10 0 3 16 3 2 3 4 9 3 2 2 7 0 Guava 5 24 18 12 4 2 5 5 6 12 0 0 381 0 4 3 2 1 5 4 12 0 2 11 8 1 Papaya 1 7 5.
6 22 2 2 2 2 1 10 0 0 103 0 4 3 2 1 2 1 7 0 0 1 1 1 Pumpkin 2 56 1.6 184 3 6 3 3 3 4 0 0 15 0 5 1 2 4 3 4 10 0 2 6 6 0 Sunflower oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 205 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Egg 25 136 0 10 5 28 0 14 7 12 22 45 0 9 5 0 5 10 3 19 4 6 7 5 2 45 Milk 6 138 0 2 3 11 1 4 2 1 7 2.6 0 0 0 0 11 0 2 9 4 2 3 1 0 5 Chicken Liver 34 149 0 222 20 105 49 62 43 147 276 30 0 4 0 1 50 5 30 7 3 18 25 13 78 Ch.
= Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium; %DV = % daily value i.e. % of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters.  Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability.
 Cow's milk (whole) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 252 kJ (60 kcal) Carbohydrates 5.26 g Sugars lactose 5.26 g 5.26 g Fat 3.25 g Saturated 1.865 g Monounsaturated 0.812 g Polyunsaturated 0.195 g Protein 3.22 g Tryptophan 0.075 g Threonine 0.143 g Isoleucine 0.165 g Leucine 0.265 g Lysine 0.140 g Methionine 0.075 g Cystine 0.017 g Phenylalanine 0.147 g Tyrosine 0.
152 g Valine 0.192 g Arginine 0.075 g Histidine 0.075 g Alanine 0.103 g Aspartic acid 0.237 g Glutamic acid 0.648 g Glycine 0.075 g Proline 0.342 g Serine 0.107 g Vitamins Vitamin A equiv. (6%) 46 μg Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.044 mg Riboflavin (B2) (15%) 0.183 mg Vitamin B12 (19%) 0.45 μg Choline (3%) 14.3 mg Vitamin D (0%) 2 IU Minerals Calcium (11%) 113 mg Magnesium (3%) 10 mg Potassium (3%) 132 mg Sodium (3%) 43 mg Other constituents Water 88.
32 g 100 mL corresponds to 103 g. Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient Database Processed cow's milk was formulated to contain differing amounts of fat during the 1950s. One cup (250 mL) of 2%-fat cow's milk contains 285 mg of calcium, which represents 22% to 29% of the daily recommended intake (DRI) of calcium for an adult.
Depending on its age, milk contains 8 grams of protein, and a number of other nutrients (either naturally or through fortification) including: Biotin Iodine Magnesium Pantothenic acid Potassium Riboflavin Selenium Thiamine Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamins D Vitamin K The amount of calcium from milk that is absorbed by the human body is disputed. Calcium from dairy products has a greater bioavailability than calcium from certain vegetables, such as spinach, that contain high levels of calcium-chelating agents, but a similar or lesser bioavailability than calcium from low-oxalate vegetables such as kale, broccoli, or other vegetables in the Brassica genus.
 Milk as a calcium source has been questioned in media, but scientific research is lacking to support the hypothesis of acidosis induced by milk. The hypothesis in question being that acidosis would lead to leeching of calcium storages in bones to neutralize pH levels (also known as acid-ash hypothesis). Research has found no link between metabolic acidosis and consumption of milk. Recommended consumption The U.
S. federal government document Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 recommends consumption of three glasses of fat-free or low-fat milk for adults and children 9 and older (less for younger children) per day. This recommendation is disputed by some health researchers who call for more study of the issue, given that there are other sources for calcium and vitamin D. The researchers also claim that the recommendations have been unduly influenced by the American dairy industry, and that whole milk may be better for health due to its increased ability to satiate hunger.
Medical research A 2008 review found evidence suggesting that consumption of milk is effective at promoting muscle growth. Some studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acid, which can be found in dairy products, is an effective supplement for reducing body fat. With regards to the claim of milk promoting stronger bones, there has been no association between milk consumption or excess calcium intake and a reduced risk of bone fractures.
In 2011, The Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published a meta-analysis examining whether milk consumption might protect against hip fracture in middle-aged and older adults. Studies could find no association between drinking milk and lower rates of fractures. In 2014, JAMA Pediatrics published a report after monitoring almost 100,000 men and women for more than two decades. Subjects were asked to report on how much milk they had consumed as teenagers, and were followed to see if there is any association with a reduced chance of hip fractures later in life, it found there was not any.
 A study published in The BMJ that followed more than 45,000 men and 61,000 women in Sweden age 39 and older had similar results. Milk consumption in adults was associated with no protection for men, and an increased risk of fractures in women. The risk of any bone fracture increased 16 percent in women who drank three or more glasses daily, and the risk of a broken hip increased 60 percent.
It was also associated with an increased risk of death in both sexes. Milk and dairy products have the potential for causing serious infection in newborn infants. Unpasteurized milk and cheeses can promote the growth of Listeria bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes can also cause serious infection in an infant and pregnant woman and can be transmitted to her infant in utero or after birth. The infection has the potential of seriously harming or even causing the death of a preterm infant, an infant of low or very low birth weight, or an infant with an immune system defect or a congenital defect of the immune system.
The presence of this pathogen can sometimes be determined by the symptoms that appear as a gastrointestinal illness in the mother. The mother can also acquire infection from ingesting food that contains other animal products such as, hot dogs, delicatessen meats, and cheese. Lactose intolerance Main article: Lactose intolerance Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk, must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase, in order for its constituents, galactose and glucose, to be absorbed.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to not enough of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. These may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea. Severity depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Those affected are usually able to drink at least one cup of milk without developing significant symptoms, with greater amounts tolerated if drunk with a meal or throughout the day.
 Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. There are four types: primary, secondary, developmental, and congenital. Primary lactose intolerance is when the amount of lactase decline as people age. Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases. Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time.
Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth. When lactose intolerance is due to secondary lactase deficiency, treatment of the underlying disease allows lactase activity to return to normal levels. Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy. The number of people with lactose intolerance is unknown. Some human populations have developed lactase persistence, in which lactase production continues into adulthood probably as a response to the benefits of being able to digest milk from farm animals.
 The percentage of the population that has a decrease in lactase as they age is less than 10% in Northern Europe and as high as 95% in parts of Asia and Africa. Possible harms Further information: Infant food safety Some studies suggest that milk consumption may increase the risk of suffering from certain health problems. Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction, rarely fatal, to one or more cow's milk proteins.
 Milk from any mammal contains amino acids and microRNA which influence the drinker's metabolism and growth; this "programming" is beneficial for milk's natural consumers, namely infants of the same species as the milk producer, but post-infancy and trans-species milk consumption affects the mTORC1 metabolic pathway and may promote diseases of civilization such as obesity and diabetes. Milk contains exogenous opioid peptides called exorphins which include opioid food peptides like Gluten exorphin and opioid food peptides.
Exorphins mimic the actions of endorphines because they bind to the same opioid receptors in the brain. The exorphin in milk is called casein, a substance that breaks down in the human stomach to produce the opioid peptide casomorphin. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that casomorphin can cause or aggravate autism spectrum disorders, and casein-free diets are widely promoted. Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations.
 The most recent assessment by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research found that most individual epidemiological studies showed increased risk of prostate cancer with increased intake of milk or dairy products. "Meta-analysis of cohort data produced evidence of a clear dose-response relationship between advanced/aggressive cancer risk with milk intake, and between all prostate cancer risk and milk and dairy products.
" Possible mechanisms proposed included inhibition of the conversion of vitamin D to its active metabolite, 1,25- dihydroxy vitamin D3 by calcium (which some evidence suggests increases cell proliferation in the prostate), and elevation of levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Several sources suggest a correlation between high calcium intake from milk, in particular, and prostate cancer, consistent with a calcium/vitamin D based mechanism.
Overall, the WCRF/AICR panel concluded that "The evidence is inconsistent from both cohort and case-control studies. There is limited evidence suggesting that milk and dairy products are a cause of prostate cancer." Medical studies also have shown a possible link between milk consumption and the exacerbation of diseases such as Crohn's disease,Hirschsprung's disease–mimicking symptoms in babies with existing cow's milk allergies, and the aggravation of Behçet's disease.
 Flavored milk in US schools Milk must be offered at every meal if a United States school district wishes to get reimbursement from the federal government. A quarter of the largest school districts in the US offer rice or soy milk and almost 17% of all US school districts offer lactose-free milk. Seventy-one percent of the milk served in US school cafeterias is flavored, causing some school districts to propose a ban because flavored milk has added sugars.
(Though some flavored milk products use artificial sweeteners instead.) The Boulder, Colorado, school district banned flavored milk in 2009 and instead installed a dispenser that keeps the milk colder. Bovine growth hormone supplementation Since November 1993, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST), also called rBGH, has been sold to dairy farmers with FDA approval. Cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally, but some producers administer an additional recombinant version of BGH which is produced through genetically engineered E.
coli to increase milk production. Bovine growth hormone also stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). The US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization have reported that both of these compounds are safe for human consumption at the amounts present. On June 9, 2006, the largest milk processor in the world and the two largest supermarkets in the United States – Dean Foods, Wal-Mart, and Kroger – announced that they are "on a nationwide search for rBGH-free milk.
" Milk from cows given rBST may be sold in the United States, and the FDA stated that no significant difference has been shown between milk derived from rBST-treated and that from non-rBST-treated cows. Milk that advertises that it comes from cows not treated with rBST, is required to state this finding on its label. Cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis.
 Problems with mastitis have led to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan banning milk from rBST treated cows. Mastitis, among other diseases, may be responsible for the fact that levels of white blood cells in milk vary naturally. rBGH is also banned in the European Union. Criticism Further information: Milk substitute Vegans and some other vegetarians do not consume milk for reasons mostly related to animal rights and environmental concerns.
They may object to features of dairy farming including the necessity of keeping dairy cows pregnant, the killing of almost all the male offspring of dairy cows (either by disposal soon after birth, for veal production, or for beef), the routine separation of mother and calf soon after birth, other perceived inhumane treatment of dairy cattle, and culling of cows after their productive lives. Some have criticized the American government's promotion of milk consumption.
Their main concern is the financial interest that the American government has taken in the dairy industry, promoting milk as the best source of calcium. All United States schools that are a part of the federally funded National School Lunch Act are required by the federal government to provide milk for all students. The Office of Dietary Supplements recommends that healthy adults between ages 19 and 50 get about 1,000 mg of calcium per day.
 Milk production is also resource intensive. On a global weighted average, for the production of a given volume of milk, a thousand times as much water has to be used. Varieties and brands Main article: Dairy product Glass milk bottle used for home delivery service in the UK Milk products are sold in a number of varieties based on types/degrees of: additives (e.g. vitamins, flavourings) age (e.
g. cheddar, old cheddar) coagulation (e.g. cottage cheese) farming method (e.g. organic, grass-fed) fat content (e.g. half and half, 3% fat milk, 2% milk, 1% milk, skim milk) fermentation (e.g. buttermilk) flavoring (e.g. chocolate and strawberry) homogenization (e.g. cream top) packaging (e.g. bottle, carton, bag) pasteurization (e.g. raw milk, pasteurized milk) reduction or elimination of lactose species (e.
g. cow, goat, sheep) sweetening (e.g., chocolate and strawberry milk) water content (e.g. dry milk powder, condensed milk) Milk preserved by the UHT process does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a much longer shelf life (six months) than milk in ordinary packaging. It is typically sold unrefrigerated in the UK, US, Europe, Latin America, and Australia. Reduction or elimination of lactose Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier.
Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. Forms are available with reduced amounts of lactose (typically 30% of normal), and alternatively with nearly 0%. The only noticeable difference from regular milk is a slightly sweeter taste due to the generation of glucose by lactose cleavage. It does not, however, contain more glucose, and is nutritionally identical to regular milk. Finland, where approximately 17% of the Finnish-speaking population has hypolactasia, has had "HYLA" (acronym for hydrolysed lactose) products available for many years.
Lactose of low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, is enzymatically hydrolysed into glucose and galactose. The ultra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shelf life. In 2001, Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink that is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. Valio patented the chromatographic separation method to remove lactose.
Valio also markets these products in Sweden, Estonia, Belgium, and the United States, where the company says ultrafiltration is used. In the UK, where an estimated 4.7% of the population are affected by lactose intolerance,Lactofree produces milk, cheese, and yogurt products that contain only 0.03% lactose. To aid digestion in those with lactose intolerance, milk with added bacterial cultures such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ("acidophilus milk") and bifidobacteria ("a/B milk") is available in some areas.
 Another milk with Lactococcus lactis bacteria cultures ("cultured buttermilk") often is used in cooking to replace the traditional use of naturally soured milk, which has become rare due to the ubiquity of pasteurization, which also kills the naturally occurring Lactococcus bacteria. Additives and flavoring In areas where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.
Reduced-fat milks often have added vitamin A palmitate to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk. Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by strawberry milk and others.
Some nutritionists have criticized flavored milk for adding sugar, usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, to the diets of children who are already commonly obese in the US. Distribution Returning reusable glass milk bottles, used for home delivery service in the UK A glass bottle of non-homogenized, organic, local milk from the US state of California. American milk bottles are generally rectangular in shape A rectangular milk jug design used by Costco and Sam's Club stores in the United States which allows for stacking and display of filled containers rather than being shipped to the store in milk crates and manual loading into a freezer display rack Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to households daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing food shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home delivery mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countries.
Australia and New Zealand In Australia and New Zealand, prior to metrication, milk was generally distributed in 1 pint (568ml) glass bottles. In Australia and Ireland there was a government funded "free milk for school children" program, and milk was distributed at morning recess in 1/3 pint bottles. With the conversion to metric measures, the milk industry were concerned that the replacement of the pint bottles with 500ml bottles would result in a 13.
6% drop in milk consumption; hence, all pint bottles were recalled and replaced by 600 mL bottles. With time, due to the steadily increasing cost of collecting, transporting, storing and cleaning glass bottles, they were replaced by cardboard cartons. A number of designs were used, including a tetrahedron which could be close-packed without waste space, and could not be knocked over accidentally. (slogan: No more crying over spilt milk.
) However, the industry eventually settled on a design similar to that used in the United States. Milk is now available in a variety of sizes in cardboard cartons (250 mL, 375 mL, 600 mL, 1 liter and 1.5 liters) and plastic bottles (1, 2 and 3 liters). A significant addition to the marketplace has been "long-life" milk (UHT), generally available in 1 and 2 liter rectangular cardboard cartons.
In urban and suburban areas where there is sufficient demand, home delivery is still available, though in suburban areas this is often 3 times per week rather than daily. Another significant and popular addition to the marketplace has been flavored milks – for example, as mentioned above, Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola in South Australia. India In rural India, milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle.
In other parts of metropolitan India, milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via shops or supermarkets. The current milk chain flow in India is from milk producer to milk collection agent. Then it is transported to a milk chilling center and bulk transported to the processing plant, then to the sales agent and finally to the consumer. A 2011 survey by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India found that nearly 70 per cent of samples had not conformed to the standards set for milk.
The study found that due to lack of hygiene and sanitation in milk handling and packaging, detergents (used during cleaning operations) were not washed properly and found their way into the milk. About eight per cent of samples in the survey were found to have detergents, which are hazardous to health. Pakistan In Pakistan, milk is supplied in jugs. Milk has been a staple food, especially among the pastoral tribes in this country.
United Kingdom Since the late 1990s, milk-buying patterns have changed drastically in the UK. The classic milkman, who travels his local milk round (route) using a milk float (often battery powered) during the early hours and delivers milk in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops directly to households, has almost disappeared. Two of the main reasons for the decline of UK home deliveries by milkmen are household refrigerators (which lessen the need for daily milk deliveries) and private car usage (which has increased supermarket shopping).
Another factor is that it is cheaper to purchase milk from a supermarket than from home delivery. In 1996, more than 2.5 billion liters of milk were still being delivered by milkmen, but by 2006 only 637 million liters (13% of milk consumed) was delivered by some 9,500 milkmen. By 2010, the estimated number of milkmen had dropped to 6,000. Assuming that delivery per milkman is the same as it was in 2006, this means milkmen deliveries now only account for 6–7% of all milk consumed by UK households (6.
7 billion liters in 2008/2009). Almost 95% of all milk in the UK is thus sold in shops today, most of it in plastic bottles of various sizes, but some also in milk cartons. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. United States Getting milk at the back door ~ 1940 In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk cartons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons.
The "half pint" .5 US pints (0.24 l; 0.42 imp pt) milk carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches, though some companies have replaced that unit size with a plastic bottle, which is also available at retail in 6- and 12-pack size. Packaging Glass milk bottles are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bottles, or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet (UV) light from fluorescent lighting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light.
Milk comes in a variety of containers with local variants: Argentina Commonly sold in 1 liter bags and cardboard boxes. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the milk is poured. Australia and New Zealand Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1.5 liters, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that with the following volumes; 1.1 L, 2 L, and 3 L.
1 liter milk bags are starting to appear in supermarkets, but have not yet proved popular. Most UHT-milk is packed in 1 or 2 liter paper containers with a sealed plastic spout. Brazil Used to be sold in cooled 1 liter bags, just like in South Africa. Today the most common form is 1 liter aseptic cartons containing UHT skimmed, semi-skimmed or whole milk, although the plastic bags are still in use for pasteurized milk.
Higher grades of pasteurized milk can be found in cartons or plastic bottles. Sizes other than 1 liter are rare. Canada 1.33 liter plastic bags (sold as 4 liters in 3 bags) are widely available in some areas (especially the Maritimes, Ontario and Quebec), although the 4 liter plastic jug has supplanted them in western Canada. Other common packaging sizes are 2 liter, 1 liter, 500 mL, and 250 mL cartons, as well as 4 liter, 1 liter, 250 mL aseptic cartons and 500 mL plastic jugs.
Chile Distributed most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1 liter, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are also popular. The most common flavors, besides the natural presentation, are chocolate, strawberry and vanilla. China Sweetened milk is a drink popular with students of all ages and is often sold in small plastic bags complete with straw. Adults not wishing to drink at a banquet often drink milk served from cartons or milk tea.
Colombia Sells milk in 1 liter plastic bags. Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro UHT milk (trajno mlijeko/trajno mleko/трајно млеко) is sold in 500 mL and 1 L (sometimes also 200 mL) aseptic cartons. Non-UHT pasteurized milk (svježe mlijeko/sveže mleko/свеже млеко) is most commonly sold in 1 L and 1.5 L PET bottles, though in Serbia one can still find milk in plastic bags.
Estonia Commonly sold in 1 L bags or 0.33 L, 0.5 L, 1 L or 1.5 L cartons. Parts of Europe Sizes of 500 mL, 1 liter (the most common), 1.5 liters, 2 liters and 3 liters are commonplace. Finland Commonly sold in 1 L or 1.5 L cartons, in some places also in 2 dl and 5 dl cartons. Germany Commonly sold in 1-liter cartons. Sale in 1-liter plastic bags (common in the 1980s) now rare. Hong Kong Milk is sold in glass bottles (220 mL), cartons (236 mL and 1 L), plastic jugs (2 liters) and aseptic cartons (250 mL).
India Commonly sold in 500 mL plastic bags and in bottles in some parts like in west. It is still customary to serve the milk boiled, despite pasteurization. Milk is often buffalo milk. Flavored milk is sold in most convenience stores in waxed cardboard containers. Convenience stores also sell many varieties of milk (such as flavored and ultra-pasteurized) in different sizes, usually in aseptic cartons.
Indonesia Usually sold in 1 liter cartons, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are available. Israel A plastic bag of milk in Israel. Non-UHT milk is most commonly sold in 1 liter waxed cardboard boxes and 1 liter plastic bags. It may also be found in 1.5 L and 2 L waxed cardboard boxes, 2 L plastic jugs and 1 L plastic bottles. UHT milk is available in 1 liter (and less commonly also in 0.5 L) carton "bricks".
Japan Commonly sold in 1 liter waxed paperboard cartons. In most city centers there is also home delivery of milk in glass jugs. As seen in China, sweetened and flavored milk drinks are commonly seen in vending machines. Kenya Milk in Kenya is mostly sold in plastic-coated aseptic paper cartons supplied in 300 mL, 500 mL or 1 liter volumes. In rural areas, milk is stored in plastic bottles or gourds.
 The standard unit of measuring milk quantity in Kenya is a liter. Pakistan Milk is supplied in 500 mL plastic bags and carried in jugs from rural to cities for selling Philippines Milk is supplied in 1000 mL plastic bottles and delivered from factories to cities for selling. Poland UHT milk is mostly sold in aseptic cartons (500 mL, 1 L, 2 L), and non-UHT in 1 L plastic bags or plastic bottles.
Milk, UHT is commonly boiled, despite being pasteurized. South Africa Commonly sold in 1 liter bags. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the milk is poured. South Korea Sold in cartons (180 mL, 200 mL, 500 mL 900 mL, 1 L, 1.8 L, 2.3 L), plastic jugs (1 L and 1.8 L), aseptic cartons (180 mL and 200 mL) and plastic bags (1 L). Sweden The milk section in a Swedish grocery store.
Commonly sold in 0.3 L, 1 L or 1.5 L cartons and sometimes as plastic or glass milk bottles. Turkey Commonly sold in 500 mL or 1L cartons or special plastic bottles. UHT milk is more popular. Milkmen also serve in smaller towns and villages. United Kingdom Most stores stock imperial sizes: 1 pint (568 mL), 2 pints (1.136 L), 4 pints (2.273 L), 6 pints (3.408 L) or a combination including both metric and imperial sizes.
Glass milk bottles delivered to the doorstep by the milkman are typically pint-sized and are returned empty by the householder for repeated reuse. Milk is sold at supermarkets in either aseptic cartons or HDPE bottles. Supermarkets have also now begun to introduce milk in bags, to be poured from a proprietary jug and nozzle. United States Commonly sold in gallon (3.78 L), half-gallon (1.89 L) and quart (0.
94 L) containers of natural-colored HDPE resin, or, for sizes less than one gallon, cartons of waxed paperboard. Bottles made of opaque PET are also becoming commonplace for smaller, particularly metric, sizes such as one liter. The US single-serving size is usually the half-pint (about 240 mL). Less frequently, dairies deliver milk directly to consumers, from coolers filled with glass bottles which are typically half-gallon sized and returned for reuse.
Some convenience store chains in the United States (such as Kwik Trip in the Midwest) sell milk in half-gallon bags, while another rectangular cube gallon container design used for easy stacking in shipping and displaying is used by warehouse clubs such as Costco and Sam's Club, along with some Wal-Mart stores. Uruguay Pasteurized milk is commonly sold in 1 liter bags and ultra-pasteurized milk is sold in cardboard boxes called Tetra Briks.
Non-pasteurized milk is forbidden. Until the 1960s no treatment was applied; milk was sold in bottles. As of 2017, plastic jugs used for pouring the bags, or "sachets", are in common use. Practically everywhere, condensed milk and evaporated milk are distributed in metal cans, 250 and 125 mL paper containers and 100 and 200 mL squeeze tubes, and powdered milk (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags.
Spoilage and fermented milk products See also: Fermented milk products Yakult, a probiotic milk-like product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirota Gourd used by Kalenjins to prepare a local version of fermented milk called mursik When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns "sour". This is the result of fermentation, where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid.
Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures (e.g. Lactobacilli sp., Streptococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., etc.) to produce a variety of fermented milk products. The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different transformations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consistency.
Some of these products include sour cream, yogurt, cheese, buttermilk, viili, kefir, and kumis. See Dairy product for more information. Pasteurization of cow's milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and increases the shelf life, but eventually results in spoilage that makes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor, and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning.
In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows their growth significantly. During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed. In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 °C (34 and 39 °F) in bulk tanks.
Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment. Milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened but has a characteristic "cooked" taste. Condensed milk, made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk.
The most durable form of milk is powdered milk, which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. The moisture content is usually less than 5% in both drum- and spray-dried powdered milk. Freezing of milk can cause fat globule aggregation upon thawing, resulting in milky layers and butterfat lumps. These can be dispersed again by warming and stirring the milk. It can change the taste by destruction of milk-fat globule membranes, releasing oxidized flavors.
 Use in other food products Steamed milk is used in a variety of espresso-based coffee beverages. Milk is used to make yogurt, cheese, ice milk, pudding, hot chocolate and french toast. Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal, porridge and granola. Milk is often served in coffee and tea. Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso-based drinks such as cafe latte. Language and culture Hindu Abhisheka ritual in Agara, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example, "the milk of human kindness", the expression "there's no use crying over spilt milk" (which means don't "be unhappy about what cannot be undone"), "don't milk the ram" (this means "to do or attempt something futile") and "Why buy a cow when you can get milk for free?" (which means "why pay for something that you can get for free otherwise.
"). In ancient Greek mythology, the goddess Hera spilled her breast milk after refusing to feed Heracles, resulting in the Milky Way in the sky. In many African and Asian countries, butter is traditionally made from fermented milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk. Holy books have also mentioned milk. The Bible contains references to the 'Land of Milk and Honey'.
In the Qur'an, there is a request to wonder on milk as follows: 'And surely in the livestock there is a lesson for you, We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies from the midst of digested food and blood, pure milk palatable for the drinkers.'(16-The Honeybee, 66). The Ramadan fast is traditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates. Abhisheka is conducted by Hindu and Jain priests, by pouring libations on the image of a deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras.
Usually offerings such as milk, yogurt, ghee, honey may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed. A milksop is an "effeminate spiritless man," an expression which is attested to in the late 14th century.Milk toast is a dish consisting of milk and toast. Its soft blandness served as inspiration for the name of the timid and ineffectual comic strip character Caspar Milquetoast, drawn by H.
T. Webster from 1924 to 1952. Thus, the term "milquetoast" entered the language as the label for a timid, shrinking, apologetic person. Milk toast also appeared in Disney's Follow Me Boys as an undesirable breakfast for the aging main character Lem Siddons. To "milk" someone, in the vernacular of many English-speaking countries, is to take advantage of the person, by analogy to the way a farmer "milks" a cow and takes its milk.
The word "milk" has had many slang meanings over time. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap and very poisonous alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits (methanol) mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept telegrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling or 'milksop'. In the mid-1930s, the word was used in Australia meaning to siphon gas from a car.
 Other uses Besides serving as a beverage or source of food, milk has been described as used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and fertilizer, however, its effectiveness is debated. Diluted milk solutions have been demonstrated to provide an effective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines, while showing it is unlikely to harm the plant. See also A2 milk Babcock test (determines the butterfat content of milk) Blocked milk duct Fermented milk products Health mark Human breast milk Lactation List of dairy products Milk line Milk paint Milky Way Operation Flood Raw milk References ^ Pehrsson, P.
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^ a b Yiu H. Hui (2006). Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering, Volume 2. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849398483. Page 58 ^ "milk". Retrieved January 30, 2018 – via The Free Dictionary. ^ Crawford et al., part B, section III, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved November 28, 2005. ^ "Caspar Milquetoast". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved November 17, 2013. ^ Green, Jonathon (2005). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang.
Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 943. ISBN 978-0-304-36636-1. ^ Campbell, Malcolm (September 19, 2003). "Fact Sheet: Milk Fungicide". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 1, 2009. ^ Hoffelt, Jeffrey (May 25, 2011). "Milk works as fertilizer, says preliminary study". Minnesota Farm Guide. Retrieved June 3, 2015. ^ Phipps, Nikki. "Milk Fertilizer Benefits: Using Milk Fertilizer On Plants".
gardeningknowhow.com. Retrieved June 3, 2015. ^ "Drop of white the right stuff for vines". Science Daily. September 12, 2002. Retrieved April 1, 2009. ^ Wagner Bettiol, Brenno Domingues Astiarraga and Alfredo José Barreto Luiz. "Effectiveness of cow's milk against zucchini squash powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) in greenhouse conditions". agrar.de. Retrieved June 3, 2015. Further reading Dupuis, E.
Melanie. Nature's Perfect Food (2002) excerpt and text search Kardashian, Kirk. Milk Money: Cash, Cows, and the Death of the American Dairy Farm (2012) excerpt and text search McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. Smith-Howard, Kendra. Pure and Modern Milk: An Environmental History Since 1900. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2013.
Valenze, Deborah. Milk: A Local and Global History (Yale University Press, 2011) 368 pp. Wiley, Andrea. Re-imagining Milk: Cultural and Biological Perspectives (Routledge 2010) (Series for Creative Teaching and Learning in Anthropology) excerpt and text search United States. Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. 2013. Web. <http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/>.
Feskanich, D.; Willett, WC; Stampfer, MJ; Colditz, GA (1997). "Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study". American Journal of Public Health. 87 (6): 992–997. doi:10.2105/ajph.87.6.992. PMC 1380936 . PMID 9224182. External links Find more aboutMilkat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Milk at Curlie (based on DMOZ) v t e Milk From animals Buffalo Camel Cow Donkey Goat Horse Human Colostrum Newborn Moose Pig Sheep From plants Plant milk Almond Coconut Hemp Peanut Rice Soy-based infant formula Soy Types A2 Baked Condensed Evaporated Filled Flavored Anise Chocolate Coffee Vanilla Ice Malted Organic Pasteurized Powdered Raw Scalded Skimmed Soured Toned UHT Ultrafiltered Products Ayran Butter Buttermilk Cheese Cream Curd Ice cream Jewelry Kefir Milkshake Whey Yogurt Topics Allergy Containers Bag Bottle Carton Crate Jug Milk churn Dairy Lactation Breastfeeding Milking Pipeline Professions Milkmaid Milkman Category v t e Milk substitutes Dairy analogues Cheese analogue Margarine Non-dairy creamer Beverages Amazake Douzhi Horchata Kokkoh Poi Sikhye Brands Alpro Cool Whip International Delight Silk Yeo Hiap Seng Related Template: Plant milk v t e Worship in Hinduism Main topics Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra Rituals Puja Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali Homa Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa Other Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma Prayer Meditation Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga Mantras Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra Objects Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham Materials Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti Instruments Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla Iconography Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more.
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