Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science The Brahman breed originated from Bos indicus cattle originally brought from India. Through centuries of exposure to inadequate food supplies, insect pests, parasites, diseases and the weather extremes of tropical India, the native cattle developed some remarkable adaptations for survival.
These are the "sacred cattle of India," and many of the Hindu faith will not eat meat from them, will not permit them to be slaughtered, and will not sell them. These facts, in conjunction with he quarantine regulations of the United States, have made it difficult to import cattle from India into this country. All the Bos indicus cattle are characterized by a large hump over the top of the shoulder and neck.
Spinal processes below the hump are extended, and there is considerable muscular tissue covering the processes. The other characteristics of these cattle are their horns, which usually curve upward and are sometimes tilted to the rear, their ears, which are generally large and pendulous, and the throatlatch and dewlap, which have a large amount of excess skin. They also have more highly developed sweat glands than European cattle (Bos taurus) and so can perspire more freely.
Bos indicus cattle produce an oily secretion from the sebaceous glands which has a distinctive odor and is reported to assist in repelling insects. Origin of the Breed Some 30 well defined breeds of cattle have been listed in India. Three principal strains or varieties were brought to the United States and used in the development of the Brahman breed are the Guzerat, the Nellore, and Gir. In addition, the Krishna Valley strain was introduced and used to a lesser extent.
The general similarity of the Guzert strain to the cattle selected and developed in this country would indicate that cattlemen working with the breed have generally preferred this type. Introduction into the United States There are conflicting reports as to the exact manner of the introduction of Indian cattle to the United States, but the following account was give to Dr. Hilton Briggs, author of Modern Breeds of Livestock, by the American Brahman Breeders' Association to help summarize the importations: The first Indian cattle, of which there is any record, were imported in 1849 by Dr.
James Bolton Davis of Fairfield County, South Carolina, who, it is believed, became acquainted with Bos indicus cattle while serving as agricultural advisor to the Sultan of Turkey. Although the descendants of these cattle were spread widely throughout the South, their complete identity was lost during the Civil War. Two Indian bulls were given to Richard Barrow, a cotton and sugar planter of St. Francisville, LA.
, in 1854, by the British Crown in recognition of Mr. Barrow's services of teaching cotton and sugar cane culture to a British representative who was to take these arts to India. The offspring of these cattle became known as "Barrow Grade" cattle, becoming widely known through the Gulf Coast region. The success of these two animals led to the importation of two more Indian bulls in 1885 by J.M. Frost and Albert Montgomery of Houston, Texas.
By mating these two bulls to the offspring of the Barrow bulls, the first attempt to concentrate the blood of Bos indicus cattle in the United States was undertaken. A few animals were imported by circus organizations from time to time, some of the more desirable ones being purchased by farmers and ranchers. One of the more famous of such purchases was a red bull named "prince," acquired by A.M. McFaddin, of Victoria, Texas, in 1904, from the Haggenbach Animal Show.
Another was the sale of about twelve head of Indian cattle by Haggenbach, these finally being acquired by Dr. William States Jacobs of Houston. In 1905 and 1906, the Pierce Ranch of Pierce, Texas, assisted by Thomas M. O'Connor of Victoria, Texas, imported thirty bulls and three females of several Indian types. These were personally selected by Able P. Borden, manager of the Pierce Ranch. In 1923-24, 90 bulls of the Guzerat, Gir and Nellore types were imported from Brazil.
In 1925, a second importation from Brazil, including 120 bulls and 18 females, reached this country. Both groups were shipped to Mexico and driven overland to the United States. Eighteen Brazilian bulls were brought to Texas by way of Mexico in 1946. Breed Development It is said that during the period from 1910 to 1920, many cattle in the south-western part of Texas and the coastal country along the Gulf of Mexico showed considerable evidence of Bos indicus breeding.
Naturally, many of the bulls that were used were the result of crosses with other breeds. Some breeders attempted to keep the stock pure, but they were in the minority. Since there are records of less than 300 imported Brahmans, most of which were bulls, it must be assumed that other breeds supplied the foundation animals for the breed. The bulls were used on cows of the European breeds and on the descendants of these crosses.
By the fifth generation (31/32) the offspring carried not only a preponderance of Bos indicus breeding but selection pressure had permitted the development of an animal generally regarded as superior to the original imports for beef production. Physical Characteristics Size. Brahmans are intermediate in size among beef breeds found in the United States. Bulls will generally weigh from 1600 to 2200 pounds and cows from 1000 to 1400 pounds in average condition.
The calves are small at birth, weighing 60 to 65 pounds, but grow very rapidly and wean at weights comparable to other breeds. Disposition. The disposition of Brahman cattle is often questioned. Brahmans are intelligent, inquisitive and shy. They are unusually thrifty, hardy and adaptable to a wide range of feed and climate. However, these characteristics also suggest careful, kind handling methods.
Brahmans like affection and can become very docile. They quickly respond to handling they receive, good or bad. Well bred, wisely selected and properly treated Brahmans are as easily handled as other breeds. Colors. Brahmans very in color from very light grey or red to almost black. A majority of the breed are light to medium grey. Mature bulls are normally darker than cows and usually have dark areas on the neck, shoulders and lower thighs.
Heat Tolerance. Studies at the University of Missouri found that Brahman and European cattle thrive equally well at temperatures down to 8° F. They found that European cattle begin to suffer adversely as the air temperature goes above 70° F, showing an increase in body temperature and a decline in appetite and milk production as 75° F, is passed. Brahmans, on the other hand, show little effect from temperatures up to and beyond 105° F.
Although heat tolerance is only one factor in environmental adaptation of cattle, it is considered the most important. These are some of the other factors that allow Brahmans to adapt to adverse conditions. Hair Coat. The short, thick, glossy hair coat of the Brahman reflects much of the sun's rays, adding to its ability to graze in the glaring midday sun without suffering. Skin Pigmentation. The black pigmented skin of Brahmans keeps out the intense rays of the sun, which in excessive amounts will damage deeper tissue layers.
Loose Skin. An abundance of loose skin on the Brahman is thought to contribute to its ability to withstand warm weather by increasing the body surface area exposed to cooling. Sweating Ability. Brahmans have sweat glands and the ability to sweat freely through the pores of the skin, which contributes materially to their heat tolerance. Internal Body Heat. One factor contributing to the great heat tolerance of Brahmans, discovered in the Missouri studies, is that they produce less internal body heat in warm weather than do cattle of European breeds.
Waste heat is produced from feed at the expense of growth and milk production. Brahman cattle have been found to fill a unique place in American cattle production. The Brahman and cattle carrying percentages of Brahman breeding have been found extremely useful in the southern coastal area of the United States, where they have demonstrated their ability to withstand hot and humid weather and to resist insects.
In more recent years Brahman cattle have spread considerably from their initial locations and are now found widely through the United States. They are also good mothers and produce a very satisfactory milk flow under conditions that are adverse for best performance of the European breeds. Cancer eye is almost unknown in the breed. They have established a considerable reputation for a high dressing percentage, and their carcasses have a very good "cutout" value with minimum of outside fat.
Probably the greatest tribute to the Brahman breed and its breeders is the rapid growth of the breed outside of the United States. They have constituted a large proportion of our exports of breeding cattle outside continental North America. Brahman Breed Associations and Registries Reference: Photographs: [Cattle Breeds || Breeds of Livestock || Animal Science Home Page || Comment ] added 1995, last update Wednesday, February 23, 2000 We are currently looking for high resolution pictures of any of the breeds.
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Cattle is the most important among the domestic animals. Cattle farming is very profitable, easy to maintain and a traditional business. But for getting better profit from cattle farming business, you must have to select suitable and productive cattle breeds for for your farm. There are many cattle breeds available around the world. Some of those cattle breeds are highly milk productive and some are highly meat productive.
And some cattle are famous for both milk and meat production. The cattle breeds are classified below on the basis of their origin and production purpose. On the Basis of Production: According to the effectiveness and production of milk and meat, the cattle breeds are of four types. Milk Breed: This types of cattle breed become highly milk productive. Some famous milk productive cattle breeds are holstein friesian, sahiwal, jersey, red sindhi, brown swiss, ayrshire etc.
Beef Breed: This breeds are very famous for their meat production. Highly meat productive cattle breeds are angus, beefmaster, brahman, devon, shorthorn, hallikar etc. Both Milk and Beef Productive: This type of cattle breeds are popular for both milk and beef production. Haryana, tharparkar, red pool, kankrej, milking shorthorn etc. are famous for both milk and beef production. Draft Breed: The bull of this types of cattle breed are very suitable for hard working.
Some important draft cattle breeds are haryana, amritmahal, malvi, krishna valley, bhagnari etc. On the Basis of Origin: The cattle breeds on the basis of origination are of three types which are described below. Deshi Breed: This type of cattle breeds are local breeds. They are very calm and quite in nature and medium sized. Their body colors are different from each to another. They produce less milk and beef than other breeds, but suitable for small scale family farming.
Red Chittagong is a famous deshi cattle breed. Foreign Breed: This types of cattle breeds were originated from different parts of the world. Sahiwal, holstein friesian, jersey, red sindhi, haryana, ayrshire etc. are famous foreign cattle breed. Hybrid Breed: Hybrid cattle breed were made through the artificial insemination of different types of cattle. For example inseminating Holstein Friesian cow with sahiwal bull creates a high productive hybrid cattle.
A list of popular and famous breeds of cattle around the world are listed below. List of Cattle Breeds Name Origin Purpose Abondance France Milk, meat Adaptaur Australia Meat Afrikaner South Africa Meat Agerolese Italy Milk Alambadi India Draught Albera France, Spain Meat American Milking Devon United States Milk, meat, draught Anatolian Black Turkey Milk, meat, draught Andalusian Black Spain Meat Angus Scotland Meat Ankole-Watusi East Africa Milk, meat, draught, show Argentine Criollo Argentina Milk, meat Armorican France Milk, meat Arouquesa Portugal Milk, meat Asturian Valley Spain Milk, meat Aubrac France Milk, meat Australian Braford Australia Meat Ayrshire Scotland Milk Bargur India Milk, draught Barzona United States Meat Bazadaise France Meat Belgian Blue Belgium Milk, meat Belgian Red Belgium Milk, meat Belmont Red Australia Meat Belted Galloway Scotland Meat Blaarkop Netherlands Milk Black Hereford England Meat Blonde d’Aquitaine France Meat Boran Eastern Africa Meat Brahman India Milk, meat, draught Brangus United States Meat Braunvieh Switzerland Milk, meat Brava France Meat Brown Swiss India Milk, meat, draught Burlina Italy Milk Busa Dinaric Alps Milk, meat, draught Cachena Portugal/Spain Milk, meat, draught Camargue France Meat, draught, sport Canadian Speckle Park Canada Meat Canadienne Canada Milk, meat Canchim Brazil Meat Caracu Brazil Milk, meat, draught Casta France Milk, meat Charolais France Meat, draught Chianina Italy Meat, draught Chinese Black Pied China Milk Corriente Spain Milk, meat, draught, sport Corsican France Meat Dangi India Milk, draught Danish Red Denmark Milk, meat Deoni India Devon England Milk, meat Dexter Ireland Milk, meat Dhanni Pakistan Milk, meat, draught Droughtmaster Australia Meat Dutch Belted Netherlands Milk, meat English Longhorn England Milk, meat Evolene Switzerland Milk Finn Finland Milk, meat Fjall Sweden Milk, meat Fleckvieh Austria Milk, meat Florida Cracker United States Meat French Simmental France Milk, meat Galloway Scotland Meat, draught Gangatiri India Milk, draught Gaolao India Milk, draught Gascon France Meat, draught Gelbvieh Germany Milk, meat, draught German Angus Germany Meat Gir India Dairy Glan Germany Milk, meat, draught Gloucester England Milk, meat, draught Greek Shorthorn Greece Milk, meat Halikar India Draught Haryana India Milk, draught Hays Converter Canada Meat Heck Germany Science Hereford England Meat Herens Switzerland Meat, cow fighting Highland Scotland Meat Hinterwald Germany Milk, meat Holando-Argentino Argentina Milk, meat Holstein Friesian Netherlands Milk Hungarian Grey Hungary Meat, draught Icelandic Iceland Milk Illawarra Australia Milk, meat Irish Moiled Ireland Milk, meat Istoben Kirov region Milk, meat Jamaica Hope Jamaica Milk Jersey Channel Islands Milk Jutland Denmark Milk, meat Kankrej India Draught Kangayam India Draught Kazakh Whiteheaded Kazakhstan, Russia Milk, meat Kenkatha India Draught Kerry Ireland Milk, meat Kherigarh India Draught Khillari India Draught Kostroma Russia Milk, meat Krishna Valley India Milk, draught Kuri Africa Milk, meat, draught Lourdais France Milk, meat, draught Lowline Australia Meat Luing Scotland Meat Lohani Pakistan Meat, draught Lithuanian Red Lithuania Meat Lincoln Red United Kingdom Meat Limousin France Meat, draught Limia Spain Milk, meat, draught Lebedyn Ukraine Milk Latvian Brown Latvia Milk, meat Madura Indonesia Milk, meat, draught, racing Maine-Anjou France Milk, meat, draught Malnad Gidda India Milk, draught Malvi India Draught Marchigiana Italy Meat, draught Maremmana Italy Milk, meat, draught Maronesa Portugal Milk, meat, draught Mewati India Milk, draught Milking Shorthorn Great Britain Milk, meat Mirandesa Portugal Meat, draught Mongolian China Meat, draught Montbéliarde France Milk, meat Murboden Austria Milk, meat, draught Murnau-Werdenfels Germany Milk Murray Grey Australia Meat Nagori India Draught N’dama Guinea Milk, meat Nelore India Meat, draught Nguni Africa Milk, meat Nimari India Draught Normande France Milk, meat Norwegian Red Norway Milk, meat Ongole India Meat, draught Pajuna Spain Meat, draught Pantaneiro Brazil Meat, milk Parthenais France Meat, draught Pembroke Wales Milk, meat Pie Rouge des Plaines France Milk Piedmontese Italy Milk, meat Pinzgauer Austria Milk, meat Pirenaica Spain Meat, draught Podolica Italy Milk, meat, draught Polish Red Poland Milk, meat, draught Ponwar India Draught Punganur India Milk, meat, draught Pustertaler Sprinzen Italy Meat Ramo Grande Portugal Milk, meat, draught Randall United States Milk, meat, draught Rathi India Milk, draught, domestic Red Angus Scotland Milk, meat Red Kandhari India Draught, domestic Red Poll England Milk, meat Red Sindhi India/Pakistan Milk, meat Ringamala Sweden Milk Romagnola Italy Meat, draught Romosinuano Colombia Meat Rubia Gallega Spain Milk, meat Sahiwal India Milk Santa Gertrudis United States Meat Sayaguesa Spain Meat, draught Senepol Caribbean Island Meat Shetland Scotland Meat, draught Shorthorn England Meat Simmental Switzerland Milk, meat, draught Siri Bhutan Milk, draught South Devon England Milk, meat Southern Yellow China, Vietnam, Taiwan Milk Spanish Fighting Bull Spain Meat, sport Square Meater Australia Meat Sussex England Meat Swedish Red Sweden Milk Tarentaise France Milk, meat Telemark Norway Milk, meat Texas Longhorn United States Milk, meat Tharparkar India Milk, draught Tswana Botswana Milk, meat Tudanca Spain Milk, meat, draught Tux Austria Milk Tyrolese Grey Austria Milk, meat Ukrainian Grey Ukraine Domestic Umblachery India Draught Vaynol Scotland Meat Vechur India Milk Vorderwald Germany Milk, meat Welsh Black Wales Meat White Fulani Africa Meat White Park United Kingdom Milk, meat Whitebred Shorthorn United Kingdom Meat Yakutian Russia Milk, meat, draught Yanbian China Draught Yurino Ukraine Domestic