This article is about the fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. For milk derived from plants, see Plant milk. For other uses of the word, see Milk (disambiguation). A glass of pasteurized cow's milk Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food.
Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows.India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products.
 The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk.
 Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households. Etymology The term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc (West Saxon), milc (Anglian), from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk" (source also of Old Norse mjolk, Old Frisian melok, Old Saxon miluk, Dutch melk, Old High German miluh, German Milch, Gothic miluks)".
 Types of consumption Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. Nutrition for infant mammals Main articles: Breastfeeding and Lactation Breastfeeding to provide a mother's milk A goat kid feeding on its mother's milk In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later.
The early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors. The makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for at least two years.
 In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, and a host of allergic reactions. Food product for humans The Holstein Friesian cattle is the dominant breed in industrialized dairy farms today In many cultures, especially in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals (especially cattle, goats and sheep) as a food product.
Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood. This mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed.
 People process milk into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and cheese. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs.
The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. Those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however, often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, reindeer and camels.
India is the largest producer and consumer of cattle and buffalo milk in the world. Per capita consumption of milk and milk products in selected countries in 2011 Country Milk (liters) Cheese (kg) Butter (kg) Ireland 135.6 6.7 2.4 Finland 127.0 22.5 4.1 United Kingdom 105.9 10.9 3.0 Australia 105.3 11.7 4.0 Sweden 90.1 19.1 1.7 Canada 78.4 12.3 2.5 United States 75.8 15.1 2.8 Europe 62.
8 17.1 3.6 Brazil 55.7 3.6 0.4 France 55.5 26.3 7.5 Italy 54.2 21.8 2.3 Germany 51.8 22.9 5.9 Greece 49.1 23.4 0.7 Netherlands 47.5 19.4 3.3 India 39.5 - 3.5 China 9.1 - 0.1 Terminology In food use, the term milk is defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing.
" This definition thereby precludes non-animal products which may resemble milk in color and texture (milk substitutes) such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. The correct name for such products are 'soy beverage', 'rice beverage', etc. Dairy relates to milk and milk production, e.g. dairy products. In addition, a substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute.
 Evolution of lactation The mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested that the original function of lactation (milk production) was keeping eggs moist. Much of the argument is based on monotremes (egg-laying mammals). The original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion gradually became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time.
 Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on their dental replacement patterns. History Drinking milk in Germany in 1932 Humans first learned to consume the milk of other mammals regularly following the domestication of animals during the Neolithic Revolution or the development of agriculture. This development occurred independently in several global locations from as early as 9000–7000 BC in Mesopotamia to 3500–3000 BC in the Americas.
 People first domesticated the most important dairy animals—cattle, sheep and goats—in Southwest Asia, although domestic cattle had been independently derived from wild aurochs populations several times since. Initially animals were kept for meat, and archaeologist Andrew Sherratt has suggested that dairying, along with the exploitation of domestic animals for hair and labor, began much later in a separate secondary products revolution in the fourth millennium BC.
 Sherratt's model is not supported by recent findings, based on the analysis of lipid residue in prehistoric pottery, that shows that dairying was practiced in the early phases of agriculture in Southwest Asia, by at least the seventh millennium BC. From Southwest Asia domestic dairy animals spread to Europe (beginning around 7000 BC but did not reach Britain and Scandinavia until after 4000 BC), and South Asia (7000–5500 BC).
 The first farmers in central Europe and Britain milked their animals. Pastoral and pastoral nomadic economies, which rely predominantly or exclusively on domestic animals and their products rather than crop farming, were developed as European farmers moved into the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the fourth millennium BC, and subsequently spread across much of the Eurasian steppe. Sheep and goats were introduced to Africa from Southwest Asia, but African cattle may have been independently domesticated around 7000–6000 BC.
 Camels, domesticated in central Arabia in the fourth millennium BC, have also been used as dairy animals in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The earliest Egyptian records of burn treatments describe burn dressings using milk from mothers of male babies. In the rest of the world (i.e., East and Southeast Asia, the Americas and Australia) milk and dairy products were historically not a large part of the diet, either because they remained populated by hunter-gatherers who did not keep animals or the local agricultural economies did not include domesticated dairy species.
Milk consumption became common in these regions comparatively recently, as a consequence of European colonialism and political domination over much of the world in the last 500 years. In the Middle Ages, milk was called the "virtuous white liquor" because alcoholic beverages were safer to consume than water. Industrialization Preserved Express Dairies three-axle milk tank wagon at the Didcot Railway Centre, based on an SR chassis The growth in urban population, coupled with the expansion of the railway network in the mid-19th century, brought about a revolution in milk production and supply.
Individual railway firms began transporting milk from rural areas to London from the 1840s and 1850s. Possibly the first such instance was in 1846, when St Thomas's Hospital in Southwark contracted with milk suppliers outside London to ship milk by rail. The Great Western Railway was an early and enthusiastic adopter, and began to transport milk into London from Maidenhead in 1860, despite much criticism.
By 1900, the company was transporting over 25 million gallons annually. The milk trade grew slowly through the 1860s, but went through a period of extensive, structural change in the 1870s and 1880s. Milk transportation in Salem, Tamil Nadu Urban demand began to grow, as consumer purchasing power increased and milk became regarded as a required daily commodity. Over the last three decades of the 19th century, demand for milk in most parts of the country doubled, or in some cases, tripled.
Legislation in 1875 made the adulteration of milk illegal - this combined with a marketing campaign to change the image of milk. The proportion of rural imports by rail as a percentage of total milk consumption in London grew from under 5% in the 1860s to over 96% by the early 20th century. By that point, the supply system for milk was the most highly organized and integrated of any food product. 1959 milk supply in Oberlech, Vorarlberg, Austria The first glass bottle packaging for milk was used in the 1870s.
The first company to do so may have been the New York Dairy Company in 1877. The Express Dairy Company in England began glass bottle production in 1880. In 1884, Hervey Thatcher, an American inventor from New York, invented a glass milk bottle, called 'Thatcher's Common Sense Milk Jar', which was sealed with a waxed paper disk. Later, in 1932, plastic-coated paper milk cartons were introduced commercially.
 In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverages and food products. He developed this method while on summer vacation in Arbois, to remedy the frequent acidity of the local wines. He found out experimentally that it is sufficient to heat a young wine to only about 50–60 °C (122–140 °F) for a brief time to kill the microbes, and that the wine could be nevertheless properly aged without sacrificing the final quality.
 In honor of Pasteur, the process became known as "pasteurization". Pasteurization was originally used as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring. Commercial pasteurizing equipment was produced in Germany in the 1880s, and producers adopted the process in Copenhagen and Stockholm by 1885. Overproduction Continued improvements in the efficiency of milk production led to a worldwide glut of milk by 2016.
Russia and China became self-sufficient and stopped importing milk. Canada has tried to restrict milk production by forcing new farmers/increased capacity to "buy in" at CN$24,000 per cow. Importing milk is prohibited. The European Union theoretically stopped subsidizing dairy farming in 2015. Direct subsidies were replaced by "environmental incentives" which results in the government buying milk when the price falls to €200 per 1,000 litres (220 imp gal; 260 US gal).
The United States has a voluntary insurance program that pays farmers depending upon the price of milk and the cost of feed. Sources Modern dairy farm in Norway The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk, but cow's milk dominates commercial production. In 2011, FAO estimates 85% of all milk worldwide was produced from cows. Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, human milk banks collect donated human breastmilk and redistribute it to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.
) but who cannot breastfeed. In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk. Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production. About 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins.
 Other dairy cows in the United States include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey and Milking Shorthorn (Dairy Shorthorn). Sources aside from cows Other significant sources of milk Goats (2% of world's milk) Buffaloes (11%) Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products. These animals include buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, donkey, horse, reindeer and yak.
The first four respectively produced about 11%, 2%, 1.4% and 0.2% of all milk worldwide in 2011. In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. According to the US National Bison Association, American bison (also called American buffalo) are not milked commercially; however, various sources report cows resulting from cross-breeding bison and domestic cattle are good milk producers, and have been used both during the European settlement of North America and during the development of commercial Beefalo in the 1970s and 1980s.
 Swine are almost never milked, even though their milk is similar to cow's milk and perfectly suitable for human consumption. The main reason for this is that milking a sow's numerous small teats is very cumbersome, and that sows can't store their milk as cows can. A few pig farms do sell pig cheese as a novelty item; these cheeses are exceedingly expensive. Production worldwide Main article: Dairy farming Top ten cow milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 United States 91,271,058 2 India 60,600,000 3 China 35,310,000 4 Brazil 34,255,236 5 Germany 31,122,000 6 Russia 30,285,969 7 France 23,714,357 8 New Zealand 18,883,000 9 Turkey 16,655,009 10 United Kingdom 13,941,000 Top ten sheep milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 China 1,540,000 2 Turkey 1,101,013 3 Greece 705,000 4 Syria 684,578 5 Romania 632,582 6 Spain 600,568 7 Sudan 540,000 8 Somalia 505,000 9 Iran 470,000 10 Italy 383,837 Top ten goat milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 India 5,000,000 2 Bangladesh 2,616,000 3 Sudan 1,532,000 4 Pakistan 801,000 5 Mali 720,000 6 France 580,694 7 Spain 471,999 8 Turkey 415,743 9 Somalia 400,000 10 Greece 340,000 Top ten buffalo milk producers in 2013 Rank Country Production (metrictonnes) 1 India 70,000,000 2 Pakistan 24,370,000 3 China 3,050,000 4 Egypt 2,614,500 5 Nepal 1,188,433 6 Myanmar 309,000 7 Italy 194,893 8 Sri Lanka 65,000 9 Iran 65,000 10 Turkey 51,947 In 2012, the largest producer of milk and milk products was India followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.
 All 28 European Union members together produced 153.8 million tonnes of milk in 2013, the largest by any politico-economic union. Increasing affluence in developing countries, as well as increased promotion of milk and milk products, has led to a rise in milk consumption in developing countries in recent years. In turn, the opportunities presented by these growing markets have attracted investments by multinational dairy firms.
Nevertheless, in many countries production remains on a small scale and presents significant opportunities for diversification of income sources by small farms. Local milk collection centers, where milk is collected and chilled prior to being transferred to urban dairies, are a good example of where farmers have been able to work on a cooperative basis, particularly in countries such as India.
 Production yields Child milking a cow by hand FAO reports Israel dairy farms are the most productive in the world, with a yield of 12,546 kilograms (27,659 lb) milk per cow per year. This survey over 2001 and 2007 was conducted by ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording) across 17 developed countries. The survey found that the average herd size in these developed countries increased from 74 to 99 cows per herd between 2001 and 2007.
A dairy farm had an average of 19 cows per herd in Norway, and 337 in New Zealand. Annual milk production in the same period increased from 7,726 to 8,550 kg (17,033 to 18,850 lb) per cow in these developed countries. The lowest average production was in New Zealand at 3,974 kg (8,761 lb) per cow. The milk yield per cow depended on production systems, nutrition of the cows, and only to a minor extent different genetic potential of the animals.
What the cow ate made the most impact on the production obtained. New Zealand cows with the lowest yield per year grazed all year, in contrast to Israel with the highest yield where the cows ate in barns with an energy-rich mixed diet. The milk yield per cow in the United States, the world's largest cow milk producer, was 9,954 kg (21,945 lb) per year in 2010. In contrast, the milk yields per cow in India and China – the second and third largest producers – were respectively 1,154 kg (2,544 lb) and 2,282 kg (5,031 lb) per year.
 Price It was reported in 2007 that with increased worldwide prosperity and the competition of bio-fuel production for feed stocks, both the demand for and the price of milk had substantially increased worldwide. Particularly notable was the rapid increase of consumption of milk in China and the rise of the price of milk in the United States above the government subsidized price. In 2010 the Department of Agriculture predicted farmers would receive an average of $1.
35 per US gallon of cow's milk (35 cents per liter), which is down 30 cents per gallon from 2007 and below the break-even point for many cattle farmers. Grading See also: Food grading In the United States, there are two grades of milk, with grade A primarily used for direct sales and consumption in stores, and grade B used for indirect consumption, such as in cheese making or other processing. The differences between the two grades are defined in the Wisconsin administrative code for Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, chapter 60.
 Grade B generally refers to milk that is cooled in milk cans, which are immersed in a bath of cold flowing water that typically is drawn up from an underground water well rather than using mechanical refrigeration. Physical and chemical properties Butterfat is a triglyceride (fat) formed from fatty acids such as myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids. Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.
 Because it is produced as a food source for the young, all of its contents provide benefits for growth. The principal requirements are energy (lipids, lactose, and protein), biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins (essential amino acids and amino groups), essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water. pH The pH of milk ranges from 6.4 to 6.8 and it changes over time.
Milk from other bovines and non-bovine mammals varies in composition, but has a similar pH. Lipids Main article: Butterfat Initially milk fat is secreted in the form of a fat globule surrounded by a membrane. Each fat globule is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerols and is surrounded by a membrane consisting of complex lipids such as phospholipids, along with proteins. These act as emulsifiers which keep the individual globules from coalescing and protect the contents of these globules from various enzymes in the fluid portion of the milk.
Although 97–98% of lipids are triacylglycrols, small amounts of di- and monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol and cholesterol esters, free fatty acids, and phospholipids are also present. Unlike protein and carbohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to genetic, lactational, and nutritional factor difference between different species. Like composition, fat globules vary in size from less than 0.
2 to about 15 micrometers in diameter between different species. Diameter may also vary between animals within a species and at different times within a milking of a single animal. In unhomogenized cow's milk, the fat globules have an average diameter of two to four micrometers and with homogenization, average around 0.4 micrometers. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K along with essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid are found within the milk fat portion of the milk.
 Proteins Normal bovine milk contains 30–35 grams of protein per liter of which about 80% is arranged in casein micelles. Total proteins in milk represent 3.2% of its composition (nutrition table). Caseins Main article: Casein The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles": aggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate.
Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins: αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins. Collectively, they make up around 76–86% of the protein in milk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, k-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid.
These kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid. Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins beside caseins and including enzymes. These other proteins are more water-soluble than caseins and do not form larger structures.
Because the proteins remain suspended in whey remaining when caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Whey proteins make up approximately 20% of the protein in milk by weight. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin. Salts, minerals, and vitamins Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anions within bovine milk.
Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 5–40 mM. The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calcium phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubility of solid calcium phosphate. In addition to calcium, milk is a good source of many other vitamins.
Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, E, thiamine, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, folates, and pantothenic acid are all present in milk. Calcium phosphate structure For many years the most accepted theory of the structure of a micelle was that it was composed of spherical casein aggregates, called submicelles, that were held together by calcium phosphate linkages. However, there are two recent models of the casein micelle that refute the distinct micellular structures within the micelle.
The first theory attributed to de Kruif and Holt, proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerpiece to micellular structure. Specifically in this view, unstructured proteins organize around the calcium phosphate giving rise to their structure and thus no specific structure is formed. The second theory proposed by Horne, the growth of calcium phosphate nanoclusters begins the process of micelle formation but is limited by binding phosphopeptide loop regions of the caseins.
Once bound, protein-protein interactions are formed and polymerization occurs, in which K-casein is used as an end cap, to form micelles with trapped calcium phosphate nanoclusters. Some sources indicate that the trapped calcium phosphate is in the form of Ca9(PO4)6; whereas, others say it is similar to the structure of the mineral brushite CaHPO4 -2H2O. Carbohydrates and miscellaneous contents A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose (2) and galactose (1) Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose, glucose, galactose, and other oligosaccharides.
The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose are dependent upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations that lactose in milks.
 Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells, mammary gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes. Appearance Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds (such as Guernsey and Jersey cattle) to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk.
The riboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which sometimes can be discerned in skimmed milk or whey products. Fat-free skimmed milk has only the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelength blue light more than they do red, giving skimmed milk a bluish tint. Processing Milk products and productions relationships (click to enlarge) In most Western countries, centralized dairy facilities process milk and products obtained from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese.
In the US, these dairies usually are local companies, while in the Southern Hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations such as Fonterra. Pasteurization Main article: Pasteurization § Milk Pasteurization is used to kill harmful Pathogenic bacteria by heating the milk for a short time and then immediately cooling it. Types of pasteurized milk include full cream, reduced fat, skim milk, calcium enriched, flavoured, and UHT.
 The standard high temperature short time (HTST) process of 72 °C for 15 seconds completely kills pathogenic bacteria in milk, rendering it safe to drink for up to three weeks if continually refrigerated. Dairies print best before dates on each container, after which stores remove any unsold milk from their shelves. A side effect of the heating of pasteurization is that some vitamin and mineral content is lost.
Soluble calcium and phosphorus decrease by 5%, thiamin and vitamin B12 by 10%, and vitamin C by 20%. Because losses are small in comparison to the large amount of the two B-vitamins present, milk continues to provide significant amounts of thiamin and vitamin B12. The loss of vitamin C is not nutritionally significant, as milk is not an important dietary source of vitamin C. Microfiltration Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk.
In this process, cream is separated from the skimmed milk and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the skimmed milk is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 99.999% killing of microorganisms in standard HTST pasteurization). The skimmed milk then is recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.
Creaming and homogenization A milking machine in action Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream often is sold as a separate product with its own uses. Today the separation of the cream from the milk usually is accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water.
The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow's milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can.
The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters as readily and are smaller to begin with, resulting in a slower separation of cream from these milks. Milk often is homogenized, a treatment that prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation.
 A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces. Nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation.
The exposed fat globules are vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization. Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized. It is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. Creamline (or cream-top) milk is unhomogenized.
It may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk that has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as "ultra-homogenized", has a longer shelf life than milk that has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. The homogenization process increases the shelf life of milk because it decreases the radius of fat globules and other particles (per stokes' law) thus delaying the rate of agglomeration.
UHT Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT), is a type of milk processing where all bacteria are destroyed with high heat to extend its shelf life for up to 6 months, as long as the package is not opened. Milk is firstly homogenized and then is heated to 138 degrees Celsius for 1–3 seconds. The milk is immediately cooled down and packed into a sterile container. As a result of this treatment, all the pathogenic bacteria within the milk are destroyed, unlike when the milk is just pasteurised.
The milk will now keep for up for 6 months if unopened. UHT milk does not need to be refrigerated until the package is opened, which makes it easier to ship and store. But in this process there is a loss of vitamin B1 and vitamin C and there is also a slight change in the taste of the milk. Nutrition and health See also: Fat content of milk The composition of milk differs widely among species.
Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd are among those that may vary. For example: Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Cow's milk contains, on average, 3.
4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional value further on Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales may contain more than 50% fat. Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams Constituents Unit Cow Goat Sheep Water buffalo Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1 Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.
4 4.5 Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0 ----Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2 ----Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7 ----Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 Carbohydrate (i.e. the sugar form of lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8 Calcium mg 120 100 170 195 Energy kcal 66 60 95 110 kJ 275 253 396 463 Cow's milk These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period.
Milk fat percentages Cow breed Approximate percentage Jersey 5.2 Zebu 4.7 Brown Swiss 4.0 Holstein-Friesian 3.6 The protein range for these four breeds is 3.3% to 3.9%, while the lactose range is 4.7% to 4.9%. Milk fat percentages may be manipulated by dairy farmers' stock diet formulation strategies. Mastitis infection can cause fat levels to decline. Nutritional value Nutrient contents in %DV of common foods (raw, uncooked) per 100 g Protein Fiber Vitamins Minerals Food DV Q DV A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch.
C D E K Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Cu Mn Se cooking Reduction % 10 30 20 25 25 35 0 0 30 10 15 20 10 20 5 10 25 Corn 20 55 6 1 13 4 16 4 19 19 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11 31 34 15 1 20 10 42 0 Rice 14 71 1.3 0 12 3 11 20 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 6 7 2 0 8 9 49 22 Wheat 27 51 40 0 28 7 34 19 21 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 20 36 51 12 0 28 28 151 128 Soybean(dry) 73 132 31 0 58 51 8 8 19 94 0 24 10 0 4 59 28 87 70 70 51 0 33 83 126 25 Pigeon pea(dry) 42 91 50 1 43 11 15 13 13 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 29 46 37 40 1 18 53 90 12 Potato 4 112 7.
3 0 5 2 5 3 15 4 0 0 33 0 0 2 1 4 6 6 12 0 2 5 8 0 Sweet potato 3 82 10 284 5 4 3 8 10 3 0 0 4 0 1 2 3 3 6 5 10 2 2 8 13 1 Spinach 6 119 7.3 188 5 11 4 1 10 49 0 4.5 47 0 10 604 10 15 20 5 16 3 4 6 45 1 Dill 7 32 7 154 4 17 8 4 9 38 0 0 142 0 0 0 21 37 14 7 21 3 6 7 63 0 Carrots 2 9.3 334 4 3 5 3 7 5 0 0 10 0 3 16 3 2 3 4 9 3 2 2 7 0 Guava 5 24 18 12 4 2 5 5 6 12 0 0 381 0 4 3 2 1 5 4 12 0 2 11 8 1 Papaya 1 7 5.
6 22 2 2 2 2 1 10 0 0 103 0 4 3 2 1 2 1 7 0 0 1 1 1 Pumpkin 2 56 1.6 184 3 6 3 3 3 4 0 0 15 0 5 1 2 4 3 4 10 0 2 6 6 0 Sunflower oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 205 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Egg 25 136 0 10 5 28 0 14 7 12 22 45 0 9 5 0 5 10 3 19 4 6 7 5 2 45 Milk 6 138 0 2 3 11 1 4 2 1 7 2.6 0 0 0 0 11 0 2 9 4 2 3 1 0 5 Chicken Liver 34 149 0 222 20 105 49 62 43 147 276 30 0 4 0 1 50 5 30 7 3 18 25 13 78 Ch.
= Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium; %DV = % daily value i.e. % of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters.  Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability.
 Cow's milk (whole) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 252 kJ (60 kcal) Carbohydrates 5.26 g Sugars lactose 5.26 g 5.26 g Fat 3.25 g Saturated 1.865 g Monounsaturated 0.812 g Polyunsaturated 0.195 g Protein 3.22 g Tryptophan 0.075 g Threonine 0.143 g Isoleucine 0.165 g Leucine 0.265 g Lysine 0.140 g Methionine 0.075 g Cystine 0.017 g Phenylalanine 0.147 g Tyrosine 0.
152 g Valine 0.192 g Arginine 0.075 g Histidine 0.075 g Alanine 0.103 g Aspartic acid 0.237 g Glutamic acid 0.648 g Glycine 0.075 g Proline 0.342 g Serine 0.107 g Vitamins Vitamin A equiv. (6%) 46 μg Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.044 mg Riboflavin (B2) (15%) 0.183 mg Vitamin B12 (19%) 0.45 μg Choline (3%) 14.3 mg Vitamin D (0%) 2 IU Minerals Calcium (11%) 113 mg Magnesium (3%) 10 mg Potassium (3%) 132 mg Sodium (3%) 43 mg Other constituents Water 88.
32 g 100 mL corresponds to 103 g. Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient Database Processed cow's milk was formulated to contain differing amounts of fat during the 1950s. One cup (250 mL) of 2%-fat cow's milk contains 285 mg of calcium, which represents 22% to 29% of the daily recommended intake (DRI) of calcium for an adult.
Depending on its age, milk contains 8 grams of protein, and a number of other nutrients (either naturally or through fortification) including: Biotin Iodine Magnesium Pantothenic acid Potassium Riboflavin Selenium Thiamine Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamins D Vitamin K The amount of calcium from milk that is absorbed by the human body is disputed. Calcium from dairy products has a greater bioavailability than calcium from certain vegetables, such as spinach, that contain high levels of calcium-chelating agents, but a similar or lesser bioavailability than calcium from low-oxalate vegetables such as kale, broccoli, or other vegetables in the Brassica genus.
 Milk as a calcium source has been questioned in media, but scientific research is lacking to support the hypothesis of acidosis induced by milk. The hypothesis in question being that acidosis would lead to leeching of calcium storages in bones to neutralize pH levels (also known as acid-ash hypothesis). Research has found no link between metabolic acidosis and consumption of milk. Recommended consumption The U.
S. federal government document Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 recommends consumption of three glasses of fat-free or low-fat milk for adults and children 9 and older (less for younger children) per day. This recommendation is disputed by some health researchers who call for more study of the issue, given that there are other sources for calcium and vitamin D. The researchers also claim that the recommendations have been unduly influenced by the American dairy industry, and that whole milk may be better for health due to its increased ability to satiate hunger.
Medical research A 2008 review found evidence suggesting that consumption of milk is effective at promoting muscle growth. Some studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acid, which can be found in dairy products, is an effective supplement for reducing body fat. With regards to the claim of milk promoting stronger bones, there has been no association between milk consumption or excess calcium intake and a reduced risk of bone fractures.
In 2011, The Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published a meta-analysis examining whether milk consumption might protect against hip fracture in middle-aged and older adults. Studies could find no association between drinking milk and lower rates of fractures. In 2014, JAMA Pediatrics published a report after monitoring almost 100,000 men and women for more than two decades. Subjects were asked to report on how much milk they had consumed as teenagers, and were followed to see if there is any association with a reduced chance of hip fractures later in life, it found there was not any.
 A study published in The BMJ that followed more than 45,000 men and 61,000 women in Sweden age 39 and older had similar results. Milk consumption in adults was associated with no protection for men, and an increased risk of fractures in women. The risk of any bone fracture increased 16 percent in women who drank three or more glasses daily, and the risk of a broken hip increased 60 percent.
It was also associated with an increased risk of death in both sexes. Milk and dairy products have the potential for causing serious infection in newborn infants. Unpasteurized milk and cheeses can promote the growth of Listeria bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes can also cause serious infection in an infant and pregnant woman and can be transmitted to her infant in utero or after birth. The infection has the potential of seriously harming or even causing the death of a preterm infant, an infant of low or very low birth weight, or an infant with an immune system defect or a congenital defect of the immune system.
The presence of this pathogen can sometimes be determined by the symptoms that appear as a gastrointestinal illness in the mother. The mother can also acquire infection from ingesting food that contains other animal products such as, hot dogs, delicatessen meats, and cheese. Lactose intolerance Main article: Lactose intolerance Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk, must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase, in order for its constituents, galactose and glucose, to be absorbed.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to not enough of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. These may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea. Severity depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Those affected are usually able to drink at least one cup of milk without developing significant symptoms, with greater amounts tolerated if drunk with a meal or throughout the day.
 Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. There are four types: primary, secondary, developmental, and congenital. Primary lactose intolerance is when the amount of lactase decline as people age. Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases. Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time.
Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth. When lactose intolerance is due to secondary lactase deficiency, treatment of the underlying disease allows lactase activity to return to normal levels. Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy. The number of people with lactose intolerance is unknown. Some human populations have developed lactase persistence, in which lactase production continues into adulthood probably as a response to the benefits of being able to digest milk from farm animals.
 The percentage of the population that has a decrease in lactase as they age is less than 10% in Northern Europe and as high as 95% in parts of Asia and Africa. Possible harms Further information: Infant food safety Some studies suggest that milk consumption may increase the risk of suffering from certain health problems. Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction, rarely fatal, to one or more cow's milk proteins.
 Milk from any mammal contains amino acids and microRNA which influence the drinker's metabolism and growth; this "programming" is beneficial for milk's natural consumers, namely infants of the same species as the milk producer, but post-infancy and trans-species milk consumption affects the mTORC1 metabolic pathway and may promote diseases of civilization such as obesity and diabetes. Milk contains exogenous opioid peptides called exorphins which include opioid food peptides like Gluten exorphin and opioid food peptides.
Exorphins mimic the actions of endorphines because they bind to the same opioid receptors in the brain. The exorphin in milk is called casein, a substance that breaks down in the human stomach to produce the opioid peptide casomorphin. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that casomorphin can cause or aggravate autism spectrum disorders, and casein-free diets are widely promoted. Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations.
 The most recent assessment by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research found that most individual epidemiological studies showed increased risk of prostate cancer with increased intake of milk or dairy products. "Meta-analysis of cohort data produced evidence of a clear dose-response relationship between advanced/aggressive cancer risk with milk intake, and between all prostate cancer risk and milk and dairy products.
" Possible mechanisms proposed included inhibition of the conversion of vitamin D to its active metabolite, 1,25- dihydroxy vitamin D3 by calcium (which some evidence suggests increases cell proliferation in the prostate), and elevation of levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Several sources suggest a correlation between high calcium intake from milk, in particular, and prostate cancer, consistent with a calcium/vitamin D based mechanism.
Overall, the WCRF/AICR panel concluded that "The evidence is inconsistent from both cohort and case-control studies. There is limited evidence suggesting that milk and dairy products are a cause of prostate cancer." Medical studies also have shown a possible link between milk consumption and the exacerbation of diseases such as Crohn's disease,Hirschsprung's disease–mimicking symptoms in babies with existing cow's milk allergies, and the aggravation of Behçet's disease.
 Flavored milk in US schools Milk must be offered at every meal if a United States school district wishes to get reimbursement from the federal government. A quarter of the largest school districts in the US offer rice or soy milk and almost 17% of all US school districts offer lactose-free milk. Seventy-one percent of the milk served in US school cafeterias is flavored, causing some school districts to propose a ban because flavored milk has added sugars.
(Though some flavored milk products use artificial sweeteners instead.) The Boulder, Colorado, school district banned flavored milk in 2009 and instead installed a dispenser that keeps the milk colder. Bovine growth hormone supplementation Since November 1993, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST), also called rBGH, has been sold to dairy farmers with FDA approval. Cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally, but some producers administer an additional recombinant version of BGH which is produced through genetically engineered E.
coli to increase milk production. Bovine growth hormone also stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). The US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization have reported that both of these compounds are safe for human consumption at the amounts present. On June 9, 2006, the largest milk processor in the world and the two largest supermarkets in the United States – Dean Foods, Wal-Mart, and Kroger – announced that they are "on a nationwide search for rBGH-free milk.
" Milk from cows given rBST may be sold in the United States, and the FDA stated that no significant difference has been shown between milk derived from rBST-treated and that from non-rBST-treated cows. Milk that advertises that it comes from cows not treated with rBST, is required to state this finding on its label. Cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis.
 Problems with mastitis have led to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan banning milk from rBST treated cows. Mastitis, among other diseases, may be responsible for the fact that levels of white blood cells in milk vary naturally. rBGH is also banned in the European Union. Criticism Further information: Milk substitute Vegans and some other vegetarians do not consume milk for reasons mostly related to animal rights and environmental concerns.
They may object to features of dairy farming including the necessity of keeping dairy cows pregnant, the killing of almost all the male offspring of dairy cows (either by disposal soon after birth, for veal production, or for beef), the routine separation of mother and calf soon after birth, other perceived inhumane treatment of dairy cattle, and culling of cows after their productive lives. Some have criticized the American government's promotion of milk consumption.
Their main concern is the financial interest that the American government has taken in the dairy industry, promoting milk as the best source of calcium. All United States schools that are a part of the federally funded National School Lunch Act are required by the federal government to provide milk for all students. The Office of Dietary Supplements recommends that healthy adults between ages 19 and 50 get about 1,000 mg of calcium per day.
 Milk production is also resource intensive. On a global weighted average, for the production of a given volume of milk, a thousand times as much water has to be used. Varieties and brands Main article: Dairy product Glass milk bottle used for home delivery service in the UK Milk products are sold in a number of varieties based on types/degrees of: additives (e.g. vitamins, flavourings) age (e.
g. cheddar, old cheddar) coagulation (e.g. cottage cheese) farming method (e.g. organic, grass-fed) fat content (e.g. half and half, 3% fat milk, 2% milk, 1% milk, skim milk) fermentation (e.g. buttermilk) flavoring (e.g. chocolate and strawberry) homogenization (e.g. cream top) packaging (e.g. bottle, carton, bag) pasteurization (e.g. raw milk, pasteurized milk) reduction or elimination of lactose species (e.
g. cow, goat, sheep) sweetening (e.g., chocolate and strawberry milk) water content (e.g. dry milk powder, condensed milk) Milk preserved by the UHT process does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a much longer shelf life (six months) than milk in ordinary packaging. It is typically sold unrefrigerated in the UK, US, Europe, Latin America, and Australia. Reduction or elimination of lactose Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier.
Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. Forms are available with reduced amounts of lactose (typically 30% of normal), and alternatively with nearly 0%. The only noticeable difference from regular milk is a slightly sweeter taste due to the generation of glucose by lactose cleavage. It does not, however, contain more glucose, and is nutritionally identical to regular milk. Finland, where approximately 17% of the Finnish-speaking population has hypolactasia, has had "HYLA" (acronym for hydrolysed lactose) products available for many years.
Lactose of low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, is enzymatically hydrolysed into glucose and galactose. The ultra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shelf life. In 2001, Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink that is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. Valio patented the chromatographic separation method to remove lactose.
Valio also markets these products in Sweden, Estonia, Belgium, and the United States, where the company says ultrafiltration is used. In the UK, where an estimated 4.7% of the population are affected by lactose intolerance,Lactofree produces milk, cheese, and yogurt products that contain only 0.03% lactose. To aid digestion in those with lactose intolerance, milk with added bacterial cultures such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ("acidophilus milk") and bifidobacteria ("a/B milk") is available in some areas.
 Another milk with Lactococcus lactis bacteria cultures ("cultured buttermilk") often is used in cooking to replace the traditional use of naturally soured milk, which has become rare due to the ubiquity of pasteurization, which also kills the naturally occurring Lactococcus bacteria. Additives and flavoring In areas where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.
Reduced-fat milks often have added vitamin A palmitate to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk. Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by strawberry milk and others.
Some nutritionists have criticized flavored milk for adding sugar, usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, to the diets of children who are already commonly obese in the US. Distribution Returning reusable glass milk bottles, used for home delivery service in the UK A glass bottle of non-homogenized, organic, local milk from the US state of California. American milk bottles are generally rectangular in shape A rectangular milk jug design used by Costco and Sam's Club stores in the United States which allows for stacking and display of filled containers rather than being shipped to the store in milk crates and manual loading into a freezer display rack Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to households daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing food shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home delivery mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countries.
Australia and New Zealand In Australia and New Zealand, prior to metrication, milk was generally distributed in 1 pint (568ml) glass bottles. In Australia and Ireland there was a government funded "free milk for school children" program, and milk was distributed at morning recess in 1/3 pint bottles. With the conversion to metric measures, the milk industry were concerned that the replacement of the pint bottles with 500ml bottles would result in a 13.
6% drop in milk consumption; hence, all pint bottles were recalled and replaced by 600 mL bottles. With time, due to the steadily increasing cost of collecting, transporting, storing and cleaning glass bottles, they were replaced by cardboard cartons. A number of designs were used, including a tetrahedron which could be close-packed without waste space, and could not be knocked over accidentally. (slogan: No more crying over spilt milk.
) However, the industry eventually settled on a design similar to that used in the United States. Milk is now available in a variety of sizes in cardboard cartons (250 mL, 375 mL, 600 mL, 1 liter and 1.5 liters) and plastic bottles (1, 2 and 3 liters). A significant addition to the marketplace has been "long-life" milk (UHT), generally available in 1 and 2 liter rectangular cardboard cartons.
In urban and suburban areas where there is sufficient demand, home delivery is still available, though in suburban areas this is often 3 times per week rather than daily. Another significant and popular addition to the marketplace has been flavored milks – for example, as mentioned above, Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola in South Australia. India In rural India, milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle.
In other parts of metropolitan India, milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via shops or supermarkets. The current milk chain flow in India is from milk producer to milk collection agent. Then it is transported to a milk chilling center and bulk transported to the processing plant, then to the sales agent and finally to the consumer. A 2011 survey by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India found that nearly 70 per cent of samples had not conformed to the standards set for milk.
The study found that due to lack of hygiene and sanitation in milk handling and packaging, detergents (used during cleaning operations) were not washed properly and found their way into the milk. About eight per cent of samples in the survey were found to have detergents, which are hazardous to health. Pakistan In Pakistan, milk is supplied in jugs. Milk has been a staple food, especially among the pastoral tribes in this country.
United Kingdom Since the late 1990s, milk-buying patterns have changed drastically in the UK. The classic milkman, who travels his local milk round (route) using a milk float (often battery powered) during the early hours and delivers milk in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops directly to households, has almost disappeared. Two of the main reasons for the decline of UK home deliveries by milkmen are household refrigerators (which lessen the need for daily milk deliveries) and private car usage (which has increased supermarket shopping).
Another factor is that it is cheaper to purchase milk from a supermarket than from home delivery. In 1996, more than 2.5 billion liters of milk were still being delivered by milkmen, but by 2006 only 637 million liters (13% of milk consumed) was delivered by some 9,500 milkmen. By 2010, the estimated number of milkmen had dropped to 6,000. Assuming that delivery per milkman is the same as it was in 2006, this means milkmen deliveries now only account for 6–7% of all milk consumed by UK households (6.
7 billion liters in 2008/2009). Almost 95% of all milk in the UK is thus sold in shops today, most of it in plastic bottles of various sizes, but some also in milk cartons. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. United States Getting milk at the back door ~ 1940 In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk cartons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons.
The "half pint" .5 US pints (0.24 l; 0.42 imp pt) milk carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches, though some companies have replaced that unit size with a plastic bottle, which is also available at retail in 6- and 12-pack size. Packaging Glass milk bottles are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bottles, or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet (UV) light from fluorescent lighting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light.
Milk comes in a variety of containers with local variants: Argentina Commonly sold in 1 liter bags and cardboard boxes. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the milk is poured. Australia and New Zealand Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1.5 liters, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that with the following volumes; 1.1 L, 2 L, and 3 L.
1 liter milk bags are starting to appear in supermarkets, but have not yet proved popular. Most UHT-milk is packed in 1 or 2 liter paper containers with a sealed plastic spout. Brazil Used to be sold in cooled 1 liter bags, just like in South Africa. Today the most common form is 1 liter aseptic cartons containing UHT skimmed, semi-skimmed or whole milk, although the plastic bags are still in use for pasteurized milk.
Higher grades of pasteurized milk can be found in cartons or plastic bottles. Sizes other than 1 liter are rare. Canada 1.33 liter plastic bags (sold as 4 liters in 3 bags) are widely available in some areas (especially the Maritimes, Ontario and Quebec), although the 4 liter plastic jug has supplanted them in western Canada. Other common packaging sizes are 2 liter, 1 liter, 500 mL, and 250 mL cartons, as well as 4 liter, 1 liter, 250 mL aseptic cartons and 500 mL plastic jugs.
Chile Distributed most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1 liter, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are also popular. The most common flavors, besides the natural presentation, are chocolate, strawberry and vanilla. China Sweetened milk is a drink popular with students of all ages and is often sold in small plastic bags complete with straw. Adults not wishing to drink at a banquet often drink milk served from cartons or milk tea.
Colombia Sells milk in 1 liter plastic bags. Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro UHT milk (trajno mlijeko/trajno mleko/трајно млеко) is sold in 500 mL and 1 L (sometimes also 200 mL) aseptic cartons. Non-UHT pasteurized milk (svježe mlijeko/sveže mleko/свеже млеко) is most commonly sold in 1 L and 1.5 L PET bottles, though in Serbia one can still find milk in plastic bags.
Estonia Commonly sold in 1 L bags or 0.33 L, 0.5 L, 1 L or 1.5 L cartons. Parts of Europe Sizes of 500 mL, 1 liter (the most common), 1.5 liters, 2 liters and 3 liters are commonplace. Finland Commonly sold in 1 L or 1.5 L cartons, in some places also in 2 dl and 5 dl cartons. Germany Commonly sold in 1-liter cartons. Sale in 1-liter plastic bags (common in the 1980s) now rare. Hong Kong Milk is sold in glass bottles (220 mL), cartons (236 mL and 1 L), plastic jugs (2 liters) and aseptic cartons (250 mL).
India Commonly sold in 500 mL plastic bags and in bottles in some parts like in west. It is still customary to serve the milk boiled, despite pasteurization. Milk is often buffalo milk. Flavored milk is sold in most convenience stores in waxed cardboard containers. Convenience stores also sell many varieties of milk (such as flavored and ultra-pasteurized) in different sizes, usually in aseptic cartons.
Indonesia Usually sold in 1 liter cartons, but smaller, snack-sized cartons are available. Israel A plastic bag of milk in Israel. Non-UHT milk is most commonly sold in 1 liter waxed cardboard boxes and 1 liter plastic bags. It may also be found in 1.5 L and 2 L waxed cardboard boxes, 2 L plastic jugs and 1 L plastic bottles. UHT milk is available in 1 liter (and less commonly also in 0.5 L) carton "bricks".
Japan Commonly sold in 1 liter waxed paperboard cartons. In most city centers there is also home delivery of milk in glass jugs. As seen in China, sweetened and flavored milk drinks are commonly seen in vending machines. Kenya Milk in Kenya is mostly sold in plastic-coated aseptic paper cartons supplied in 300 mL, 500 mL or 1 liter volumes. In rural areas, milk is stored in plastic bottles or gourds.
 The standard unit of measuring milk quantity in Kenya is a liter. Pakistan Milk is supplied in 500 mL plastic bags and carried in jugs from rural to cities for selling Philippines Milk is supplied in 1000 mL plastic bottles and delivered from factories to cities for selling. Poland UHT milk is mostly sold in aseptic cartons (500 mL, 1 L, 2 L), and non-UHT in 1 L plastic bags or plastic bottles.
Milk, UHT is commonly boiled, despite being pasteurized. South Africa Commonly sold in 1 liter bags. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the milk is poured. South Korea Sold in cartons (180 mL, 200 mL, 500 mL 900 mL, 1 L, 1.8 L, 2.3 L), plastic jugs (1 L and 1.8 L), aseptic cartons (180 mL and 200 mL) and plastic bags (1 L). Sweden The milk section in a Swedish grocery store.
Commonly sold in 0.3 L, 1 L or 1.5 L cartons and sometimes as plastic or glass milk bottles. Turkey Commonly sold in 500 mL or 1L cartons or special plastic bottles. UHT milk is more popular. Milkmen also serve in smaller towns and villages. United Kingdom Most stores stock imperial sizes: 1 pint (568 mL), 2 pints (1.136 L), 4 pints (2.273 L), 6 pints (3.408 L) or a combination including both metric and imperial sizes.
Glass milk bottles delivered to the doorstep by the milkman are typically pint-sized and are returned empty by the householder for repeated reuse. Milk is sold at supermarkets in either aseptic cartons or HDPE bottles. Supermarkets have also now begun to introduce milk in bags, to be poured from a proprietary jug and nozzle. United States Commonly sold in gallon (3.78 L), half-gallon (1.89 L) and quart (0.
94 L) containers of natural-colored HDPE resin, or, for sizes less than one gallon, cartons of waxed paperboard. Bottles made of opaque PET are also becoming commonplace for smaller, particularly metric, sizes such as one liter. The US single-serving size is usually the half-pint (about 240 mL). Less frequently, dairies deliver milk directly to consumers, from coolers filled with glass bottles which are typically half-gallon sized and returned for reuse.
Some convenience store chains in the United States (such as Kwik Trip in the Midwest) sell milk in half-gallon bags, while another rectangular cube gallon container design used for easy stacking in shipping and displaying is used by warehouse clubs such as Costco and Sam's Club, along with some Wal-Mart stores. Uruguay Pasteurized milk is commonly sold in 1 liter bags and ultra-pasteurized milk is sold in cardboard boxes called Tetra Briks.
Non-pasteurized milk is forbidden. Until the 1960s no treatment was applied; milk was sold in bottles. As of 2017, plastic jugs used for pouring the bags, or "sachets", are in common use. Practically everywhere, condensed milk and evaporated milk are distributed in metal cans, 250 and 125 mL paper containers and 100 and 200 mL squeeze tubes, and powdered milk (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags.
Spoilage and fermented milk products See also: Fermented milk products Yakult, a probiotic milk-like product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirota Gourd used by Kalenjins to prepare a local version of fermented milk called mursik When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns "sour". This is the result of fermentation, where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid.
Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures (e.g. Lactobacilli sp., Streptococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., etc.) to produce a variety of fermented milk products. The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different transformations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consistency.
Some of these products include sour cream, yogurt, cheese, buttermilk, viili, kefir, and kumis. See Dairy product for more information. Pasteurization of cow's milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and increases the shelf life, but eventually results in spoilage that makes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor, and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning.
In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows their growth significantly. During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed. In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 °C (34 and 39 °F) in bulk tanks.
Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment. Milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened but has a characteristic "cooked" taste. Condensed milk, made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk.
The most durable form of milk is powdered milk, which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. The moisture content is usually less than 5% in both drum- and spray-dried powdered milk. Freezing of milk can cause fat globule aggregation upon thawing, resulting in milky layers and butterfat lumps. These can be dispersed again by warming and stirring the milk. It can change the taste by destruction of milk-fat globule membranes, releasing oxidized flavors.
 Use in other food products Steamed milk is used in a variety of espresso-based coffee beverages. Milk is used to make yogurt, cheese, ice milk, pudding, hot chocolate and french toast. Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal, porridge and granola. Milk is often served in coffee and tea. Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso-based drinks such as cafe latte. Language and culture Hindu Abhisheka ritual in Agara, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example, "the milk of human kindness", the expression "there's no use crying over spilt milk" (which means don't "be unhappy about what cannot be undone"), "don't milk the ram" (this means "to do or attempt something futile") and "Why buy a cow when you can get milk for free?" (which means "why pay for something that you can get for free otherwise.
"). In ancient Greek mythology, the goddess Hera spilled her breast milk after refusing to feed Heracles, resulting in the Milky Way in the sky. In many African and Asian countries, butter is traditionally made from fermented milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk. Holy books have also mentioned milk. The Bible contains references to the 'Land of Milk and Honey'.
In the Qur'an, there is a request to wonder on milk as follows: 'And surely in the livestock there is a lesson for you, We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies from the midst of digested food and blood, pure milk palatable for the drinkers.'(16-The Honeybee, 66). The Ramadan fast is traditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates. Abhisheka is conducted by Hindu and Jain priests, by pouring libations on the image of a deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras.
Usually offerings such as milk, yogurt, ghee, honey may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed. A milksop is an "effeminate spiritless man," an expression which is attested to in the late 14th century.Milk toast is a dish consisting of milk and toast. Its soft blandness served as inspiration for the name of the timid and ineffectual comic strip character Caspar Milquetoast, drawn by H.
T. Webster from 1924 to 1952. Thus, the term "milquetoast" entered the language as the label for a timid, shrinking, apologetic person. Milk toast also appeared in Disney's Follow Me Boys as an undesirable breakfast for the aging main character Lem Siddons. To "milk" someone, in the vernacular of many English-speaking countries, is to take advantage of the person, by analogy to the way a farmer "milks" a cow and takes its milk.
The word "milk" has had many slang meanings over time. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap and very poisonous alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits (methanol) mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept telegrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling or 'milksop'. In the mid-1930s, the word was used in Australia meaning to siphon gas from a car.
 Other uses Besides serving as a beverage or source of food, milk has been described as used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and fertilizer, however, its effectiveness is debated. Diluted milk solutions have been demonstrated to provide an effective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines, while showing it is unlikely to harm the plant. See also A2 milk Babcock test (determines the butterfat content of milk) Blocked milk duct Fermented milk products Health mark Human breast milk Lactation List of dairy products Milk line Milk paint Milky Way Operation Flood Raw milk References ^ Pehrsson, P.
R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Perry, C.R.; Beckler, D.G. (2000). "USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Food Sampling" (PDF). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 13 (4): 379–389. doi:10.1006/jfca.1999.0867. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2003. ^ "Food Outlook – Global Market Analysis" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. May 2012.
pp. 8, 51–54. ^ "World Dairy Cow Numbers". [FAO]. January 14, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014. ^ Anand Kumar. "India emerging as a leading milk product exporter". Dawn. Pakistan. ^ "Government scraps incentive on milk powder exports to check prices". timesofindia-economictimes. ^ "Milk quality in India". milkproduction.com. ^ "Top Cows' Milk Producing Countries In The World".
World Atlas. March 16, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016. ^ a b Gagnon-Joseph, Nathalie (February 17, 2016). "Three approaches to the milk glut". The Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. pp. 1A, 24A, 25A. Retrieved March 1, 2016. ^ Hemme, T.; Otte, J., eds. (2010). Status and Prospects for Smallholder Milk Production: A Global Perspective (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ^ a b "milk - Search Online Etymology Dictionary".
www.etymonline.com. Retrieved January 30, 2018. ^ Uruakpa, F. O.; Ismond, M. A. H.; Akobundu, E. N. T. (2002). "Colostrum and its benefits: A review". Nutrition Research. 22 (6): 755–767. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(02)00373-1. ^ Blood DC, Studdert VP, Gay CC (2007). Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Saunders Elsevierv. ISBN 0-7020-2789-8. ^ The World Health Organization's infant feeding recommendation WHO, based on "Global strategy on infant and young child feeding" (2002).
Retrieved February 8, 2013. ^ Dettwyler, Katherine A. (October 1997). "When to Wean". Natural History. Retrieved February 8, 2013. (Subscription required (help)). ^ Basnet, S.; Schneider, M.; Gazit, A.; Mander, G.; Doctor, A. (April 2010). "Fresh Goat's Milk for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review". Pediatrics. 125 (4): e973–977. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1906. PMID 20231186. ^ Curry, Andrew (July 31, 2013).
"Archaeology: The milk revolution". Nature. 500 (7460): 20–22. Bibcode:2013Natur.500...20C. doi:10.1038/500020a. PMID 23903732. ^ "Nutrition for Everyone: Basics: Saturated Fat - DNPAO". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ^ "Eat less saturated fat". National Health Service. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McGee, Harold (2004) . "Milk and Dairy Products". On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.
). New York: Scribner. pp. 7–67. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. ^ "World's No 1 Milk Producer". Indiadairy.com. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ a b Goff, Douglas. "Introduction to Dairy Science and Technology: Milk History, Consumption, Production, and Composition: World-wide Milk Consumption and Production". Dairy Science and Technology. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 12, 2014. ^ Codex Alimentarius Commission.
"General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms 206-1999" (PDF). ^ Gussekloo, S.W.S. (2006). "Chapter 2: Feeding Structures in Birds". In Bels, V. Feeding in Domestic Vertebrates: From Structure to Behaviour. CABI Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-84593-063-9. A remarkable adaptation can be found in the crop of pigeons. During the breeding season the crop produces a yellow-white fat-rich secretion known as crop milk that is used to feed the nestlings.
… The crop milk resembles strongly the milk produced by mammals, except for the fact that carbohydrates and calcium are missing in crop milk. ^ a b c Oftedal, Olav T. (2002). "The mammary gland and its origin during synapsid evolution". Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 7 (3): 225–252. doi:10.1023/A:1022896515287. PMID 12751889. ^ Oftedal, Olav T. (2002). "The origin of lactation as a water source for parchment-shelled eggs".
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 7 (3): 253–66. doi:10.1023/A:1022848632125. PMID 12751890. ^ "Lactating on Eggs". Nationalzoo.si.edu. July 14, 2003. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009. ^ Lefèvre CM, Sharp JA, Nicholas KR (2010). "Evolution of lactation: ancient origin and extreme adaptations of the lactation system". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics.
11 (1): 219–238. doi:10.1146/annurev-genom-082509-141806. PMID 20565255. ^ Vorbach C, Capecchi MR, Penninger JM (2006). "Evolution of the mammary gland from the innate immune system?". BioEssays. 28 (6): 606–616. doi:10.1002/bies.20423. PMID 16700061. ^ Goldman A.S. (2002). "Evolution of the mammary gland defense system and the ontogeny of the immune system" (PDF). Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia.
7 (3): 277–289. doi:10.1023/A:1022852700266. PMID 12751892. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2013. ^ Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Clark, James M (2009). "A New Tritylodontid from the Upper Jurassic of Xinjiang, China". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (3): 385–391. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0053. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2005). "The Beginnings of Agriculture in Southwest Asia". First Farmers: the origins of agricultural societies.
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publushing. pp. 44–68. ISBN 978-0-631-20566-1. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2005). "Early Agriculture in the Americas". First Farmers: the origins of agricultural societies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publushing. pp. 146–179. ISBN 978-0-631-20566-1. ^ Beja-Pereira, A.; Caramelli, D.; Lalueza-Fox, C.; Vernesi, C.; Ferrand, N.; Casoli, A.; Goyache, F.; Royo, L. J.; Conti, S.; Lari, M.
; Martini, A.; Ouragh, L.; Magid, A.; Atash, A.; Zsolnai, A.; Boscato, P.; Triantaphylidis, C.; Ploumi, K.; Sineo, L.; Mallegni, F.; Taberlet, P.; Erhardt, G.; Sampietro, L.; Bertranpetit, J.; Barbujani, G.; Luikart, G.; Bertorelle, G. (2006). "The origin of European cattle: Evidence from modern and ancient DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (21): 8113–8118. Bibcode:2006PNAS.
.103.8113B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509210103. PMC 1472438 . PMID 16690747. ^ Sherratt, Andrew (1981). "Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution". In Hodder, I.; Isaac, G.; Hammond, N. Pattern of the Past: Studies in honour of David Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 261–305. ISBN 0-521-22763-1. ^ Vigne, D.; Helmer, J.-D. (2007). "Was milk a 'secondary product' in the Old World Neolithisation process? Its role in the domestication of cattle, sheep and goats" (PDF).
Anthropozoologica. 42 (2): 9–40. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. ^ Evershed, R. P.; Payne, S.; Sherratt, A. G.; Copley, M. S.; Coolidge, J.; Urem-Kotsu, D.; Kotsakis, K.; Ozdoğan, M.; Ozdoğan, A. E.; Nieuwenhuyse, O.; Akkermans, P. M. M. G.; Bailey, D.; Andeescu, R. R.; Campbell, S.; Farid, S.; Hodder, I.; Yalman, N.; Ozbaşaran, M.; Biçakci, E.; Garfinkel, Y.; Levy, T.; Burton, M.
M. (2008). "Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding". Nature. 455 (7212): 528–531. Bibcode:2008Natur.455..528E. doi:10.1038/nature07180. PMID 18690215. ^ Price, T. D. (2000). "Europe's first farmers: an introduction". In T. D. Price. Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–18. ISBN 0-521-66203-6. ^ Meadow, R. H.
(1996). "The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in northwestern South Asia". In D. R. Harris. The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. London: UCL Press. pp. 390–412. ISBN 1-85728-538-7. ^ Craig, Oliver E.; John Chapman; Carl Heron; Laura H. Willis; László Bartosiewicz; Gillian Taylor; Alasdair Whittle; Matthew Collins (2005). "Did the first farmers of central and eastern Europe produce dairy foods?".
Antiquity. 79 (306): 882–894. hdl:10149/136330. ^ Copley, M. S.; Berstan, R.; Mukherjee, A. J.; Dudd, S. N.; Straker, V.; Payne, S.; Evershed, R. P. (2005). "Dairying in antiquity. III. Evidence from absorbed lipid residues dating to the British Neolithic". Journal of Archaeological Science. 32 (4): 523–546. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2004.08.006. ^ Anthony, D. W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05887-0. ^ Gifford-Gonzalez, D. (2004). "Pastoralism and its Consequences". In A. B. Stahl. African archaeology: a critical introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 187–224. ISBN 978-1-4051-0155-4. ^ Peters, J. (1997). "The dromedary: Ancestry, history of domestication and medical treatment in early historic times". Tierarztliche Praxis.
Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere. 25 (6): 559–565. PMID 9451759. ^ Pećanac, M.; Janjić, Z.; Komarcević, A.; Pajić, M.; Dobanovacki, D.; Misković, SS. (2013). "Burns treatment in ancient times". Med Pregl. 66 (5–6): 263–7. doi:10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00603-5. PMID 23888738. ^ Valenze, D. M. (2011). "Virtuous White Liquor in the Middle Ages". Milk: a local and global history. New Haven: Yale University Press.
p. 34. ISBN 9780300117240. ^ a b P. J. Atkins (1978). "The Growth of London's Railway Milk Trade, c. 1845-1914". Journal of Transport History. ^ "The History of Milk". DairyCo. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. ^ a b c "The History Of Milk", About.com. Retrieved August 13, 2010. ^ a b Vallery-Radot, René (March 1, 2003). Life of Pasteur 1928. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-0-7661-4352-4.
^ Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, p.357. John Wiley & Songs, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-24410-4. ^ Peter Atkins. "The pasteurization of England: the science, cultureand health implications of food processing, 1900-1950". ^ Hwang, Andy; Huang, Lihan (January 31, 2009). Ready-to-Eat Foods: Microbial Concerns and Control Measures. CRC Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4200-6862-7.
Retrieved April 19, 2011. ^ a b c Gerosa and Skoet (2012). "Milk availability – Trends in production and demand and medium-term outlook" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. ^ Why Bank Milk? Human Milk Banking Association of North America ^ "Moose milk makes for unusual cheese". The Globe and Mail. June 26, 2004. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
^ "About Bison: Frequently Asked Questions". National Bison Association. Archived from the original on February 11, 2006. Retrieved August 16, 2009. ^ Allen, Joel Asaph (June 1877). "Part II., Chapter 4. Domestication of the Buffalo". In Elliott Coues, Secretary of the Survey. History of the American Bison: bison americanus. extracted from the 9th Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey (1875).
Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Government Printing Office. pp. 585–586. OCLC 991639. Retrieved August 16, 2009. ^ O'Connor, George (March–April 1981). "The Basics of Beefalo Raising". Mother Earth News. Ogden Publications (68). Archived from the original on May 4, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ NRC.nl - Waarom drinken we de melk van varkens niet? (in Dutch) ^ "Nieuw (en peperduur): kaas van varkensmelk - Plezier in de Keuken".
August 26, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2018. ^ "Milk, whole fresh cow producers". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2016. ^ "Milk, whole fresh sheep producers". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2016. ^ "Milk, whole fresh goat producers". UN Food & Agriculture Organization.
Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2016. ^ "Milk, whole fresh buffalo producers". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2016. ^ "Dairy production and products: Milk production". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved December 3, 2015. ^ "Milk and milk product statistics - Statistics Explained". European Commission.
Retrieved December 3, 2015. ^ Henriksen, J. (2009) "Milk for Health and Wealth". FAO Diversification Booklet Series 6, Rome ^ Sinha, O.P. (2007) Agro-industries characterization and appraisal: Dairy in India, FAO, Rome ^ "ICAR - International Committee for Animal Recording". icar.org. ^ FAOSTAT, Yield data 2010 – Cow milk, whole, fresh, FAOSTAT, Food And Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; faostat.
fao.org. Retrieved August 1, 2012. ^ Wayne Arnold, "A Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring", The New York Times September 4, 2007. ^ Bewley, Elizabeth (June 24, 2010). "Dairy farmers tackle big coops". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 8B. ^ Wisconsin administrative code for Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, Chapter ATCP 60. (PDF). Retrieved November 24, 2011.
^ Rolf Jost "Milk and Dairy Products" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_589.pub3 ^ a b c d Fox, P. F. Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Vol. 3: Lactose, Water, Salts and Vitamins. 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall: New York, 1995. ^ a b c Fox, P.F. Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Vol 2 Lipids. 2nd Ed. Chapman and Hall: New York, 1995. ^ a b Goff, Douglas (2010).
"Raw milk quality". Dairy Science and Technology. University of Guelph Food Science, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ chemistry and physics. Foodsci.uoguelph.ca. Retrieved December 9, 2011. ^ Services, Department of Health & Human. "Milk". Retrieved October 9, 2016. ^ Ball, C. Olin (January 1, 1943). "Short-Time Pasteurization of Milk". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry.
35 (1): 71–84. doi:10.1021/ie50397a017. ISSN 0019-7866. ^ Ranieri, M. L.; Huck, J. R.; Sonnen, M.; Barbano, D. M.; Boor, K. J. (October 1, 2009). "High temperature, short time pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk". Journal of Dairy Science. 92 (10): 4823–4832. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2144. ISSN 0022-0302. PMID 19762797.
^ Wilson, G. S. (1943). "The Pasteurization of Milk". British Medical Journal. 1 (4286): 261–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4286.261. PMC 2282302 . PMID 20784713. ^ Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. 2004. p. 265. ISBN 0-203-91355-8. Retrieved September 6, 2016. ^ Stabel, J; Lambertz, A (April 27, 2004). "Efficacy of Pasteurization Conditions for the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp.
paratuberculosis in Milk". Journal of Food Protection. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, 2300 Dayton Road, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA. 67 (12): 2719–2726. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-67.12.2719. Retrieved September 6, 2016. ^ Goff, Douglas (2010). "Homogenization of Milk and Milk Products". Dairy Science and Technology.
University of Guelph. Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ "Research Can Lead To Longer Shelf Life For Dairy Products". Sciencedaily.com. December 23, 2002. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ "Why does organic milk last so much longer than regular milk?". Scientific American. Retrieved December 1, 2016. ^ "Milk contains traces of ash". The Hindu. Chennai, India. July 10, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ Whale.
Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. ^ Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace. National Academies Press. 1988. ISBN 978-0-309-03795-2. ^ "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service. ^ "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis". NutritionData.
com. ^ "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6" (PDF). USDA. USDA. Dec 2007. ^ a b "Nutritional Effects of Food Processing". NutritionData.com. ^ Jones, Alicia Noelle (2002). "Density of Milk". The Physics Factbook. ^ Feskanich, D; Willett, WC; Stampfer, MJ; Colditz, GA (1997). "Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study". American Journal of Public Health.
87 (6): 992–7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.6.992. PMC 1380936 . PMID 9224182. ^ Brody T. (1999) "Calcium and phosphate". pp. 761–94 in Nutritional biochemistry, 2nd ed. Boston: Academic Press, ISBN 0121348369. ^ Heaney, Robert P.; Weaver, Connie M. (1990). "Calcium absorption from kale". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 51 (4): 656–7. PMID 2321572. ^ "Calcium and Milk: What's Best for Your Bones and Health?".
The Nutrition Source. Harvard School of Public Health. 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ Bonjour JP (2013). "Nutritional disturbance in acid-base balance and osteoporosis: a hypothesis that disregards the essential homeostatic role of the kidney". The British Journal of Nutrition. 110 (7): 1168–77. doi:10.1017/S0007114513000962. PMC 3828631 . PMID 23551968. ^ Fenton TR, Lyon AW (2011). "Milk and acid-base balance: proposed hypothesis versus scientific evidence".
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 30 (5 Suppl 1): 471S–5S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2011.10719992. PMID 22081694. ^ Fenton TR, Lyon AW, Eliasziw M, Tough SC, Hanley DA (2009). "Meta-analysis of the effect of the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis on calcium balance". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 24 (11): 1835–40. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090515. PMID 19419322. ^ Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, p.
38, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, December 2010. ^ Kotz, Deborah (July 8, 2013) How much milk do we really need?. Boston Globe. ^ Roy BD (2008). "Milk: the new sports drink? A Review". J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 5 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-15. PMC 2569005 . PMID 18831752. ^ Whigham, LD; Watras, AC; Schoeller, DA (May 2007). "Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans".
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85 (5): 1203–11. PMID 17490954. ^ Feskanich, D.; Willett, WC; Stampfer, MJ; Colditz, GA (1997). "Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study". American Journal of Public Health. 87 (6): 992–997. doi:10.2105/ajph.87.6.992. PMC 1380936 . PMID 9224182. ^ Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Kanis JA, Orav EJ, Staehelin HB, Kiel DP, Burckhardt P, Henschkowski J, Spiegelman D, Li R, Wong JB, Feskanich D, Willett WC (2011).
"Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 26 (4): 833–9. doi:10.1002/jbmr.279. PMID 20949604. ^ Feskanich D, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Frazier AL, Willett WC (2014). "Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults". JAMA Pediatr. 168 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.
2013.3821. PMC 3983667 . PMID 24247817. ^ a b Michaëlsson, K.; et al. (2014). "Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies". The BMJ. 349: g6015. doi:10.1136/bmj.g6015. ^ "Listeria (Listeriosis)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 22, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015. ^ a b c Deng Y, Misselwitz B, Dai N, Fox M (2015). "Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management".
Nutrients (Review). 7 (9): 8020–35. doi:10.3390/nu7095380. PMC 4586575 . PMID 26393648. ^ a b c d e "Lactose Intolerance". NIDDK. June 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2016. ^ Suchy FJ, Brannon PM, Carpenter TO, Fernandez JR, Gilsanz V, Gould JB, et al. (2010). "NIH consensus development conference statement: Lactose intolerance and health". NIH Consens State Sci Statements (Consensus Development Conference, NIH.
Review). 27 (2): 1–27. PMID 20186234. ^ Heyman MB (2006). "Lactose Intolerance in Infants, Children, and Adolescents". Pediatrics (Review). 118 (3): 1279–1286. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1721. PMID 16951027. ^ Berni Canani R, Pezzella V, Amoroso A, Cozzolino T, Di Scala C, Passariello A (Mar 10, 2016). "Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children". Nutrients (Review). 8 (3): pii: E157.
doi:10.3390/nu8030157. PMC 4808885 . PMID 26978392. ^ Vandenplas Y (2015). "Lactose intolerance". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr (Review). 24 Suppl 1: S9–13. doi:10.6133/apjcn.2015.24.s1.02. PMID 26715083. ^ "How many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance?". NICHD. May 6, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2016. ^ Høst A (1994). "Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects".
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 5 (5 Suppl): 1–36. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.1994.tb00352.x. PMID 7704117. ^ a b Melnik BC, John SM, Schmitz G (2013). "Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth". Nutrition Journal. 12: 103. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-103. PMC 3725179 . PMID 23883112. ^ Wiley, AS (March 2012). "Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach".
American Journal of Human Biology. Wiley Periodicals. 24 (2): 130–138. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22201. PMID 22121110. ^ Reichelt KL, Knivsberg A, Lind G, Nødland M (1991). "Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism". Brain Dysfunct. 4: 308–19. ^ a b Christison GW, Ivany K (2006). "Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff?". J Dev Behav Pediatr. 27 (2 Suppl 2): S162–71.
doi:10.1097/00004703-200604002-00015. PMID 16685183. ^ Mulloy, Austin (2010). "Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 4: 328–339. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2009.10.008. ^ a b c World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective.
Washington DC: American Institute for Cancer Research. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5. ^ Giovannucci E; Rimm EB; Wolk A; Ascherio, A; Stampfer, MJ; Colditz, GA; Willett, WC (1998). "Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer". Cancer Research. 58 (3): 442–7. PMID 9458087. ^ Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL (2001). "Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study".
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74 (4): 549–54. PMID 11566656. ^ Chan JM; Gann, PH; Giovannucci, EL (2005). "Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression". J Clin Oncol. 23 (32): 8152–60. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.1492. PMID 16278466. ^ "How Bacteria In Cows' (sic) Milk May Cause Crohn's Disease". Sciencedaily.com. December 13, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ Kubota, A; Kawahara, H; Okuyama, H; Shimizu, Y; Nakacho, M; Ida, S; Nakayama, M; Okada, A (2006).
"Cow's milk protein allergy presenting with Hirschsprung's disease–mimicking symptoms". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 41 (12): 2056–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.08.031. PMID 17161204. ^ Triolo, G; Accardo-Palumbo, A; Dieli, F; Ciccia, F; Ferrante, A; Giardina, E; Licata, G (2002). "Humoral and cell mediated immune response to cow's milk proteins in Behçet's disease". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.
61 (5): 459–62. doi:10.1136/ard.61.5.459. PMC 1754076 . PMID 11959773. ^ a b Severson, Kim (August 24, 2010). "A School Fight Over Chocolate Milk". The New York Times. ^ "Report on the Food and Drug Administration's Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 23, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2016. ^ "Bovine Somatotropin". NIH State of the Science Statements.
National Institutes of Health. ^ "Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2016. ^ "Monsanto's Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) Once Again Under Fire". Organicconsumers.org. June 9, 2006. ^ Voluntary Labeling of Milk and Milk Products From Cows That Have Not Been Treated With Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin. Fda.gov. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
^ Epstein, Samuel S. "Milk: America's Health Problem". Cancer Prevention Coalition. Archived from the original on March 14, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ "Mastitis Control Programs: Milk Quality Evaluation Tools for Dairy Farmers". Ag.ndsu.edu. January 1, 1997. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ Greger, Michael (January 2001). "Paratuberculosis and Crohn's Disease: Got Milk?" (PDF). Vegan Outreach.
Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ "European Council Decision of December 17, 1999". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. "Milk Sucks". Retrieved December 9, 2009. ^ United States. Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. 2013. Web. . ^ Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y. (January 24, 2012). "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products".
Ecosystems. 15 (3): 401–415. doi:10.1007/s10021-011-9517-8. ISSN 1432-9840. ^ Sahi, T (1974). "Lactose malabsorption in Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking populations in Finland". Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 9 (3): 303–8. PMID 4852638. ^ Zero Lactose – Enfin une solution pour les intolérants au lactose Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Zerolactose.be. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
^ Lactose Free Milk. Real Goodness. Retrieved November 24, 2011. ^ "Lactose intolerance: prevalence, symptoms and diagnosis". The Dairy Council. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. ^ "Yogurt and Other Cultured Dairy Products", National Dairy Council, 2000. ^ Rombauer, Irma S. and Marion Rombauer Becker (1975). The Joy of Cooking (Revised Edition). Bobbs Merrill. p. 533. ISBN 0-672-51831-7.
^ "How to Buy Dairy Products" Archived December 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Home and Garden Bulletin 255, USDA, February 1995. Retrieved May 16, 2007. ^ Main, Emily (November 30, 2009). "Chocolate Milk Debate Rages On". Rodale News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ a b Milk and Juice Cartons Fact Sheet, Waste Wise WA, zerowastewa.com.au. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
^ "Adulterated milk is what Indians are drinking". Centre for Science and Environment. Retrieved June 28, 2015. ^ Coughlan, Sean (March 28, 2006). "Milk's online top-up". BBC News. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ "Find me a Milkman – I want doorstep deliveries!". Dairy UK. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011. ^ ""Milk product roadmaps", The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs".
Defra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2010. ^ a b Kibor, Fred (March 9, 2016). "Tracing the origin of Mursik". The Standard. Retrieved November 8, 2016. ^ Neondo, Henry. "More Kenyans Consume Raw Milk Due to Poverty". City Farmer. Retrieved November 8, 2016. ^ Rosenbloom, Stephanie (June 30, 2008). "Solution, or Mess? A Milk Jug for a Green Earth". The New York Times.
^ a b Yiu H. Hui (2006). Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering, Volume 2. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849398483. Page 58 ^ "milk". Retrieved January 30, 2018 – via The Free Dictionary. ^ Crawford et al., part B, section III, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved November 28, 2005. ^ "Caspar Milquetoast". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved November 17, 2013. ^ Green, Jonathon (2005). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang.
Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 943. ISBN 978-0-304-36636-1. ^ Campbell, Malcolm (September 19, 2003). "Fact Sheet: Milk Fungicide". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 1, 2009. ^ Hoffelt, Jeffrey (May 25, 2011). "Milk works as fertilizer, says preliminary study". Minnesota Farm Guide. Retrieved June 3, 2015. ^ Phipps, Nikki. "Milk Fertilizer Benefits: Using Milk Fertilizer On Plants".
gardeningknowhow.com. Retrieved June 3, 2015. ^ "Drop of white the right stuff for vines". Science Daily. September 12, 2002. Retrieved April 1, 2009. ^ Wagner Bettiol, Brenno Domingues Astiarraga and Alfredo José Barreto Luiz. "Effectiveness of cow's milk against zucchini squash powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) in greenhouse conditions". agrar.de. Retrieved June 3, 2015. Further reading Dupuis, E.
Melanie. Nature's Perfect Food (2002) excerpt and text search Kardashian, Kirk. Milk Money: Cash, Cows, and the Death of the American Dairy Farm (2012) excerpt and text search McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. Smith-Howard, Kendra. Pure and Modern Milk: An Environmental History Since 1900. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2013.
Valenze, Deborah. Milk: A Local and Global History (Yale University Press, 2011) 368 pp. Wiley, Andrea. Re-imagining Milk: Cultural and Biological Perspectives (Routledge 2010) (Series for Creative Teaching and Learning in Anthropology) excerpt and text search United States. Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. 2013. Web. <http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/>.
Feskanich, D.; Willett, WC; Stampfer, MJ; Colditz, GA (1997). "Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study". American Journal of Public Health. 87 (6): 992–997. doi:10.2105/ajph.87.6.992. PMC 1380936 . PMID 9224182. External links Find more aboutMilkat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Milk at Curlie (based on DMOZ) v t e Milk From animals Buffalo Camel Cow Donkey Goat Horse Human Colostrum Newborn Moose Pig Sheep From plants Plant milk Almond Coconut Hemp Peanut Rice Soy-based infant formula Soy Types A2 Baked Condensed Evaporated Filled Flavored Anise Chocolate Coffee Vanilla Ice Malted Organic Pasteurized Powdered Raw Scalded Skimmed Soured Toned UHT Ultrafiltered Products Ayran Butter Buttermilk Cheese Cream Curd Ice cream Jewelry Kefir Milkshake Whey Yogurt Topics Allergy Containers Bag Bottle Carton Crate Jug Milk churn Dairy Lactation Breastfeeding Milking Pipeline Professions Milkmaid Milkman Category v t e Milk substitutes Dairy analogues Cheese analogue Margarine Non-dairy creamer Beverages Amazake Douzhi Horchata Kokkoh Poi Sikhye Brands Alpro Cool Whip International Delight Silk Yeo Hiap Seng Related Template: Plant milk v t e Worship in Hinduism Main topics Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra Rituals Puja Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali Homa Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa Other Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma Prayer Meditation Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga Mantras Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra Objects Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham Materials Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti Instruments Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla Iconography Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more.
.. Places Ashram Dwajasthambam Ghat Kalyani Matha Temple Pilgrimage sites Roles Guru Pandit Pujari Rishi Sadhu Sannyasa Swami Yogi more... Sacred animals Nāga Nag Panchami Nagaradhane Sacred plants Trees Akshayavat Ashoka Banyan Kadamba Kalpavriksha Parijaat Peepal Sacred groves Fruits and other plants Bael Kusha grass Lotus Tulsi (Tulasi chaura Tulsi Vivah) See also Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance Authority control GND: 4039264-8 Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milk&oldid=823220701"See Also: Buffalo Milk Or Cow Milk
Find with regard to the numerous various sports nourishment health supplements accessible and just how they can boost your sporting performance
Its tough to discern the truth regarding the dietary health health supplements that you can buy these days. How can you know which of the nutritional vitamin dietary supplements to select from the market? This article answers these essential issues and offers some excellent decisions for top health supplements that you can buy these days which might be normally only accessible to people by means of health practitioner offices.
THE MILK LETTER : A MESSAGE TO MY PATIENTSRobert M. Kradjian, MDBreast Surgery Chief Division of General Surgery,Seton Medical Centre #302 - 1800 Sullivan Ave.Daly City, CA 94015 USA "MILK" Just the word itself sounds comforting! "How about a nice cup of hot milk?" The last time you heard that question it was from someone who cared for you--and you appreciated their effort. The entire matter of food and especially that of milk is surrounded with emotional and cultural importance.
Milk was our very first food. If we were fortunate it was our mother's milk. A loving link, given and taken. It was the only path to survival. If not mother's milk it was cow's milk or soy milk "formula"--rarely it was goat, camel or water buffalo milk. Now, we are a nation of milk drinkers. Nearly all of us. Infants, the young, adolescents, adults and even the aged. We drink dozens or even several hundred gallons a year and add to that many pounds of "dairy products" such as cheese, butter, and yogurt.
Can there be anything wrong with this? We see reassuring images of healthy, beautiful people on our television screens and hear messages that assure us that, "Milk is good for your body." Our dieticians insist that: "You've got to have milk, or where will you get your calcium?" School lunches always include milk and nearly every hospital meal will have milk added. And if that isn't enough, our nutritionists told us for years that dairy products make up an "essential food group.
" Industry spokesmen made sure that colourful charts proclaiming the necessity of milk and other essential nutrients were made available at no cost for schools. Cow's milk became "normal." You may be surprised to learn that most of the human beings that live on planet Earth today do not drink or use cow's milk. Further, most of them can't drink milk because it makes them ill. There are students of human nutrition who are not supportive of milk use for adults.
Here is a quotation from the March/April 1991 Utne Reader: If you really want to play it safe, you may decide to join the growing number of Americans who are eliminating dairy products from their diets altogether. Although this sounds radical to those of us weaned on milk and the five basic food groups, it is eminently viable. Indeed, of all the mammals, only humans--and then only a minority, principally Caucasians--continue to drink milk beyond babyhood.
Who is right? Why the confusion? Where best to get our answers? Can we trust milk industry spokesmen? Can you trust any industry spokesmen? Are nutritionists up to date or are they simply repeating what their professors learned years ago? What about the new voices urging caution? I believe that there are three reliable sources of information. The first, and probably the best, is a study of nature.
The second is to study the history of our own species. Finally we need to look at the world's scientific literature on the subject of milk. Let's look at the scientific literature first. From 1988 to 1993 there were over 2,700 articles dealing with milk recorded in the 'Medicine' archives. Fifteen hundred of theses had milk as the main focus of the article. There is no lack of scientific information on this subject.
I reviewed over 500 of the 1,500 articles, discarding articles that dealt exclusively with animals, esoteric research and inconclusive studies. How would I summarize the articles? They were only slightly less than horrifying. First of all, none of the authors spoke of cow's milk as an excellent food, free of side effects and the 'perfect food' as we have been led to believe by the industry. The main focus of the published reports seems to be on intestinal colic, intestinal irritation, intestinal bleeding, anemia, allergic reactions in infants and children as well as infections such as salmonella.
More ominous is the fear of viral infection with bovine leukemia virus or an AIDS-like virus as well as concern for childhood diabetes. Contamination of milk by blood and white (pus) cells as well as a variety of chemicals and insecticides was also discussed. Among children the problems were allergy, ear and tonsillar infections, bedwetting, asthma, intestinal bleeding, colic and childhood diabetes.
In adults the problems seemed centered more around heart disease and arthritis, allergy, sinusitis, and the more serious questions of leukemia, lymphoma and cancer. I think that an answer can also be found in a consideration of what occurs in nature & what happens with free living mammals and what happens with human groups living in close to a natural state as 'hunter-gatherers'. Our paleolithic ancestors are another crucial and interesting group to study.
Here we are limited to speculation and indirect evidences, but the bony remains available for our study are remarkable. There is no doubt whatever that these skeletal remains reflect great strength, muscularity (the size of the muscular insertions show this), and total absence of advanced osteoporosis. And if you feel that these people are not important for us to study, consider that today our genes are programming our bodies in almost exactly the same way as our ancestors of 50,000 to 100,000 years ago.
WHAT IS MILK? Milk is a maternal lactating secretion, a short term nutrient for new-borns. Nothing more, nothing less. Invariably, the mother of any mammal will provide her milk for a short period of time immediately after birth. When the time comes for 'weaning', the young offspring is introduced to the proper food for that species of mammal. A familiar example is that of a puppy. The mother nurses the pup for just a few weeks and then rejects the young animal and teaches it to eat solid food.
Nursing is provided by nature only for the very youngest of mammals. Of course, it is not possible for animals living in a natural state to continue with the drinking of milk after weaning. IS ALL MILK THE SAME? Then there is the matter of where we get our milk. We have settled on the cow because of its docile nature, its size, and its abundant milk supply. Somehow this choice seems 'normal' and blessed by nature, our culture, and our customs.
But is it natural? Is it wise to drink the milk of another species of mammal? Consider for a moment, if it was possible, to drink the milk of a mammal other than a cow, let's say a rat. Or perhaps the milk of a dog would be more to your liking. Possibly some horse milk or cat milk. Do you get the idea? Well, I'm not serious about this, except to suggest that human milk is for human infants, dogs' milk is for pups, cows' milk is for calves, cats' milk is for kittens, and so forth.
Clearly, this is the way nature intends it. Just use your own good judgement on this one. Milk is not just milk. The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows' milk is very much richer in protein than human milk. Three to four times as much. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk.
Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid. (Incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Food is not just food, and milk is not just milk. It is not only the proper amount of food but the proper qualitative composition that is critical for the very best in health and growth. Biochemists and physiologists -and rarely medical doctors - are gradually learning that foods contain the crucial elements that allow a particular species to develop its unique specializations.
Clearly, our specialization is for advanced neurological development and delicate neuromuscular control. We do not have much need of massive skeletal growth or huge muscle groups as does a calf. Think of the difference between the demands make on the human hand and the demands on a cow's hoof. Human new-borns specifically need critical material for their brains, spinal cord and nerves. Can mother's milk increase intelligence? It seems that it can.
In a remarkable study published in Lancet during 1992 (Vol. 339, p. 261-4), a group of British workers randomly placed premature infants into two groups. One group received a proper formula, the other group received human breast milk. Both fluids were given by stomach tube. These children were followed up for over 10 years. In intelligence testing, the human milk children averaged 10 IQ points higher! Well, why not? Why wouldn't the correct building blocks for the rapidly maturing and growing brain have a positive effect? In the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1982) Ralph Holman described an infant who developed profound neurological disease while being nourished by intravenous fluids only.
The fluids used contained only linoleic acid - just one of the essential fatty acids. When the other, alpha linoleic acid, was added to the intravenous fluids the neurological disorders cleared. In the same journal five years later Bjerve, Mostad and Thoresen, working in Norway found exactly the same problem in adult patients on long term gastric tube feeding. In 1930 Dr. G.O. Burr in Minnesota working with rats found that linoleic acid deficiencies created a deficiency syndrome.
Why is this mentioned? In the early 1960s pediatricians found skin lesions in children fed formulas without the same linoleic acid. Remembering the research, the addition of the acid to the formula cured the problem. Essential fatty acids are just that and cows' milk is markedly deficient in these when compared to human milk. WELL, AT LEAST COW'S MILK IS PURE Or is it? Fifty years ago an average cow produced 2,000 pounds of milk per year.
Today the top producers give 50,000 pounds! How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that's how. The latest high-tech onslaught on the poor cow is bovine growth hormone or BGH. This genetically engineered drug is supposed to stimulate milk production but, according to Monsanto, the hormone's manufacturer, does not affect the milk or meat.
There are three other manufacturers: Upjohn, Eli Lilly, and American Cyanamid Company. Obviously, there have been no long-term studies on the hormone's effect on the humans drinking the milk. Other countries have banned BGH because of safety concerns. One of the problems with adding molecules to a milk cows' body is that the molecules usually come out in the milk. I don't know how you feel, but I don't want to experiment with the ingestion of a growth hormone.
A related problem is that it causes a marked increase (50 to 70 per cent) in mastitis. This, then, requires antibiotic therapy, and the residues of the antibiotics appear in the milk. It seems that the public is uneasy about this product and in one survey 43 per cent felt that growth hormone treated milk represented a health risk. A vice president for public policy at Monsanto was opposed to labelling for that reason, and because the labelling would create an 'artificial distinction'.
The country is awash with milk as it is, we produce more milk than we can consume. Let's not create storage costs and further taxpayer burdens, because the law requires the USDA to buy any surplus of butter, cheese, or non-fat dry milk at a support price set by Congress! In fiscal 1991, the USDA spent $757 million on surplus butter, and one billion dollars a year on average for price supports during the 1980s (Consumer Reports, May 1992: 330-32).
Any lactating mammal excretes toxins through her milk. This includes antibiotics, pesticides, chemicals and hormones. Also, all cows' milk contains blood! The inspectors are simply asked to keep it under certain limits. You may be horrified to learn that the USDA allows milk to contain from one to one and a half million white blood cells per millilitre. (That's only 1/30 of an ounce). If you don't already know this, I'm sorry to tell you that another way to describe white cells where they don't belong would be to call them pus cells.
To get to the point, is milk pure or is it a chemical, biological, and bacterial cocktail? Finally, will the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protect you? The United States General Accounting Office (GAO) tells us that the FDA and the individual States are failing to protect the public from drug residues in milk. Authorities test for only 4 of the 82 drugs in dairy cows. As you can imagine, the Milk Industry Foundation's spokesman claims it's perfectly safe.
Jerome Kozak says, "I still think that milk is the safest product we have." Other, perhaps less biased observers, have found the following: 38% of milk samples in 10 cities were contaminated with sulfa drugs or other antibiotics. (This from the Centre for Science in the Public Interest and The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 29, 1989).. A similar study in Washington, DC found a 20 percent contamination rate (Nutrition Action Healthletter, April 1990).
What's going on here? When the FDA tested milk, they found few problems. However, they used very lax standards. When they used the same criteria, the FDA data showed 51 percent of the milk samples showed drug traces. Let's focus in on this because it�’s critical to our understanding of the apparent discrepancies. The FDA uses a disk-assay method that can detect only 2 of the 30 or so drugs found in milk.
Also, the test detects only at the relatively high level. A more powerful test called the 'Charm II test' can detect drugs down to 5 parts per billion. One nasty subject must be discussed. It seems that cows are forever getting infections around the udder that require ointments and antibiotics. An article from France tells us that when a cow receives penicillin, that penicillin appears in the milk for from 4 to 7 milkings.
Another study from the University of Nevada, Reno tells of cells in 'mastic milk', milk from cows with infected udders. An elaborate analysis of the cell fragments, employing cell cultures, flow cytometric analysis , and a great deal of high tech stuff. Do you know what the conclusion was? If the cow has mastitis, there is pus in the milk. Sorry, it�’s in the study, all concealed with language such as "macrophages containing many vacuoles and phagocytosed particles," etc.
IT GETS WORSE Well, at least human mothers' milk is pure! Sorry. A huge study showed that human breast milk in over 14,000 women had contamination by pesticides! Further, it seems that the sources of the pesticides are meat and--you guessed it-- dairy products. Well, why not? These pesticides are concentrated in fat and that's what's in these products. (Of interest, a subgroup of lactating vegetarian mothers had only half the levels of contamination).
A recent report showed an increased concentration of pesticides in the breast tissue of women with breast cancer when compared to the tissue of women with fibrocystic disease. Other articles in the standard medical literature describe problems. Just scan these titles: 1.Cow's Milk as a Cause of Infantile Colic Breast-Fed Infants. Lancet 2 (1978): 437 2.Dietary Protein-Induced Colitis in Breast- Fed Infants, J.
Pediatr. I01 (1982): 906 3.The Question of the Elimination of Foreign Protein in Women's Milk, J. Immunology 19 (1930): 15 There are many others. There are dozens of studies describing the prompt appearance of cows' milk allergy in children being exclusively breast-fed! The cows' milk allergens simply appear in the mother's milk and are transmitted to the infant. A committee on nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics reported on the use of whole cows' milk in infancy (Pediatrics 1983: 72-253).
They were unable to provide any cogent reason why bovine milk should be used before the first birthday yet continued to recommend its use! Doctor Frank Oski from the Upstate Medical Centre Department of Pediatrics, commenting on the recommendation, cited the problems of acute gastrointestinal blood loss in infants, the lack of iron, recurrent abdominal pain, milk- borne infections and contaminants, and said: Why give it at all - then or ever? In the face of uncertainty about many of the potential dangers of whole bovine milk, it would seem prudent to recommend that whole milk not be started until the answers are available.
Isn't it time for these uncontrolled experiments on human nutrition to come to an end? In the same issue of Pediatrics he further commented: It is my thesis that whole milk should not be fed to the infant in the first year of life because of its association with iron deficiency anemia (milk is so deficient in iron that an infant would have to drink an impossible 31 quarts a day to get the RDA of 15 mg), acute gastrointiestinal bleeding, and various manifestations of food allergy.
I suggest that unmodified whole bovine milk should not be consumed after infancy because of the problems of lactose intolerance, its contribution to the genesis of atherosclerosis, and its possible link to other diseases. In late 1992 Dr. Benjamin Spock, possibly the best known pediatrician in history, shocked the country when he articulated the same thoughts and specified avoidance for the first two years of life.
Here is his quotation: I want to pass on the word to parents that cows' milk from the carton has definite faults for some babies. Human milk is the right one for babies. A study comparing the incidence of allergy and colic in the breast-fed infants of omnivorous and vegan mothers would be important. I haven't found such a study; it would be both important and inexpensive. And it will probably never be done.
There is simply no academic or economic profit involved. OTHER PROBLEMS Let's just mention the problems of bacterial contamination. Salmonella, E. coli, and staphylococcal infections can be traced to milk. In the old days tuberculosis was a major problem and some folks want to go back to those times by insisting on raw milk on the basis that it's "natural." This is insanity! A study from UCLA showed that over a third of all cases of salmonella infection in California, 1980-1983 were traced to raw milk.
That'll be a way to revive good old brucellosis again and I would fear leukemia, too. (More about that later). In England, and Wales where raw milk is still consumed there have been outbreaks of milk-borne diseases. The Journal of the American Medical Association (251: 483, 1984) reported a multi-state series of infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in pasteurised whole milk. This is despite safety precautions.
All parents dread juvenile diabetes for their children. A Canadian study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Mar. 1990, describes a "...significant positive correlation between consumption of unfermented milk protein and incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in data from various countries. Conversely a possible negative relationship is observed between breast-feeding at age 3 months and diabetes risk.
". Another study from Finland found that diabetic children had higher levels of serum antibodies to cows�’ milk (Diabetes Research 7(3): 137-140 March 1988). Here is a quotation from this study: We infer that either the pattern of cows' milk consumption is altered in children who will have insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or, their immunological reactivity to proteins in cows' milk is enhanced, or the permeability of their intestines to cows' milk protein is higher than normal.
The April 18, 1992 British Medical Journal has a fascinating study contrasting the difference in incidence of juvenile insulin dependent diabetes in Pakistani children who have migrated to England. The incidence is roughly 10 times greater in the English group compared to children remaining in Pakistan! What caused this highly significant increase? The authors said that "the diet was unchanged in Great Britain.
" Do you believe that? Do you think that the availability of milk, sugar and fat is the same in Pakistan as it is in England? That a grocery store in England has the same products as food sources in Pakistan? I don't believe that for a minute. Remember, we're not talking here about adult onset, type II diabetes which all workers agree is strongly linked to diet as well as to a genetic predisposition.
This study is a major blow to the "it's all in your genes" crowd. Type I diabetes was always considered to be genetic or possibly viral, but now this? So resistant are we to consider diet as causation that the authors of the last article concluded that the cooler climate in England altered viruses and caused the very real increase in diabetes! The first two authors had the same reluctance top admit the obvious.
The milk just may have had something to do with the disease. The latest in this remarkable list of reports, a New England Journal of Medicine article (July 30, 1992), also reported in the Los Angeles Times. This study comes from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and from Finnish researchers. In Finland there is "...the world's highest rate of dairy product consumption and the world's highest rate of insulin dependent diabetes.
The disease strikes about 40 children out of every 1,000 there contrasted with six to eight per 1,000 in the United States.... Antibodies produced against the milk protein during the first year of life, the researchers speculate, also attack and destroy the pancreas in a so-called auto-immune reaction, producing diabetes in people whose genetic makeup leaves them vulnerable." "...142 Finnish children with newly diagnosed diabetes.
They found that every one had at least eight times as many antibodies against the milk protein as did healthy children, clear evidence that the children had a raging auto immune disorder." The team has now expanded the study to 400 children and is starting a trial where 3,000 children will receive no dairy products during the first nine months of life. "The study may take 10 years, but we'll get a definitive answer one way or the other," according to one of the researchers.
I would caution them to be certain that the breast feeding mothers use on cows' milk in their diets or the results will be confounded by the transmission of the cows' milk protein in the mother's breast milk.... Now what was the reaction from the diabetes association? This is very interesting! Dr. F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, the president of the association says: "It does not mean that children should stop drinking milk or that parents of diabetics should withdraw dairy products.
These are rich sources of good protein." (Emphasis added) My God, it's the "good protein" that causes the problem! Do you suspect that the dairy industry may have helped the American Diabetes Association in the past? LEUKEMIA? LYMPHOMA? THIS MAY BE THE WORST--BRACE YOURSELF! I hate to tell you this, but the bovine leukemia virus is found in more than three of five dairy cows in the United States! This involves about 80% of dairy herds.
Unfortunately, when the milk is pooled, a very large percentage of all milk produced is contaminated (90 to 95 per cent). Of course the virus is killed in pasteurisation-- if the pasteurisation was done correctly. What if the milk is raw? In a study of randomly collected raw milk samples the bovine leukemia virus was recovered from two-thirds. I sincerely hope that the raw milk dairy herds are carefully monitored when compared to the regular herds.
(Science 1981; 213:1014). This is a world-wide problem. One lengthy study from Germany deplored the problem and admitted the impossibility of keeping the virus from infected cows' milk from the rest of the milk. Several European countries, including Germany and Switzerland, have attempted to "cull" the infected cows from their herds. Certainly the United States must be the leader in the fight against leukemic dairy cows, right? Wrong! We are the worst in the world with the former exception of Venezuela according to Virgil Hulse MD, a milk specialist who also has a B.
S. in Dairy Manufacturing as well as a Master's degree in Public Health. As mentioned, the leukemia virus is rendered inactive by pasteurisation. Of course. However, there can be Chernobyl like accidents. One of these occurred in the Chicago area in April, 1985. At a modern, large, milk processing plant an accidental "cross connection" between raw and pasteurized milk occurred. A violent salmonella outbreak followed, killing 4 and making an estimated 150,000 ill.
Now the question I would pose to the dairy industry people is this: "How can you assure the people who drank this milk that they were not exposed to the ingestion of raw, unkilled, bully active bovine leukemia viruses?" Further, it would be fascinating to know if a "cluster" of leukemia cases blossoms in that area in 1 to 3 decades. There are reports of "leukemia clusters" elsewhere, one of them mentioned in the June 10, 1990 San Francisco Chronicle involving Northern California.
What happens to other species of mammals when they are exposed to the bovine leukemia virus? It's a fair question and the answer is not reassuring. Virtually all animals exposed to the virus develop leukemia. This includes sheep, goats, and even primates such as rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. The route of transmission includes ingestion (both intravenous and intramuscular) and cells present in milk.
There are obviously no instances of transfer attempts to human beings, but we know that the virus can infect human cells in vitro. There is evidence of human antibody formation to the bovine leukemia virus; this is disturbing. How did the bovine leukemia virus particles gain access to humans and become antigens? Was it as small, denatured particles? If the bovine leukemia viruses causes human leukemia, we could expect the dairy states with known leukemic herds to have a higher incidence of human leukemia.
Is this so? Unfortunately, it seems to be the case! Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin have statistically higher incidence of leukemia than the national average. In Russia and in Sweden, areas with uncontrolled bovine leukemia virus have been linked with increases in human leukemia. I am also told that veterinarians have higher rates of leukemia than the general public. Dairy farmers have significantly elevated leukemia rates.
Recent research shows lymphocytes from milk fed to neonatal mammals gains access to bodily tissues by passing directly through the intestinal wall. An optimistic note from the University of Illinois, Ubana from the Department of Animal Sciences shows the importance of one's perspective. Since they are concerned with the economics of milk and not primarily the health aspects, they noted that the production of milk was greater in the cows with the bovine leukemia virus.
However when the leukemia produced a persistent and significant lymphocytosis (increased white blood cell count), the production fell off. They suggested "a need to re-evaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry". Does this mean that leukemia is good for profits only if we can keep it under control? You can get the details on this business concern from Proc.
Nat. Acad. Sciences, U.S. Feb. 1989. I added emphasis and am insulted that a university department feels that this is an economic and not a human health issue. Do not expect help from the Department of Agriculture or the universities. The money stakes and the political pressures are too great. You're on you own. What does this all mean? We know that virus is capable of producing leukemia in other animals.
Is it proven that it can contribute to human leukemia (or lymphoma, a related cancer)? Several articles tackle this one: 1.Epidemiologic Relationships of the Bovine Population and Human Leukemia in Iowa. Am Journal of Epidemiology 112 (1980):80 2.Milk of Dairy Cows Frequently Contains a Leukemogenic Virus. Science 213 (1981): 1014 3.Beware of the Cow. (Editorial) Lancet 2 (1974):30 4.Is Bovine Milk A Health Hazard?.
Pediatrics; Suppl. Feeding the Normal Infant. 75:182-186; 1985 In Norway, 1422 individuals were followed for 11 and a half years. Those drinking 2 or more glasses of milk per day had 3.5 times the incidence of cancer of the lymphatic organs. British Med. Journal 61:456-9, March 1990. One of the more thoughtful articles on this subject is from Allan S. Cunningham of Cooperstown, New York. Writing in the Lancet, November 27, 1976 (page 1184), his article is entitled, "Lymphomas and Animal-Protein Consumption".
Many people think of milk as �“liquid meat�” and Dr. Cunningham agrees with this. He tracked the beef and dairy consumption in terms of grams per day for a one year period, 1955-1956., in 15 countries . New Zealand, United States and Canada were highest in that order. The lowest was Japan followed by Yugoslavia and France. The difference between the highest and lowest was quite pronounced: 43.
8 grams/day for New Zealanders versus 1.5 for Japan. Nearly a 30-fold difference! (Parenthetically, the last 36 years have seen a startling increase in the amount of beef and milk used in Japan and their disease patterns are reflecting this, confirming the lack of 'genetic protection' seen in migration studies. Formerly the increase in frequency of lymphomas in Japanese people was only in those who moved to the USA)! An interesting bit of trivia is to note the memorial built at the Gyokusenji Temple in Shimoda, Japan.
This marked the spot where the first cow was killed in Japan for human consumption! The chains around this memorial were a gift from the US Navy. Where do you suppose the Japanese got the idea to eat beef? The year? 1930. Cunningham found a highly significant positive correlation between deaths from lymphomas and beef and dairy ingestion in the 15 countries analysed. A few quotations from his article follow: The average intake of protein in many countries is far in excess of the recommended requirements.
Excessive consumption of animal protein may be one co-factor in the causation of lymphomas by acting in the following manner. Ingestion of certain proteins results in the adsorption of antigenic fragments through the gastrointestinal mucous membrane. This results in chronic stimulation of lymphoid tissue to which these fragments gain access "Chronic immunological stimulation causes lymphomas in laboratory animals and is believed to cause lymphoid cancers in men.
" The gastrointestinal mucous membrane is only a partial barrier to the absorption of food antigens, and circulating antibodies to food protein is commonplace especially potent lymphoid stimulants. Ingestion of cows' milk can produce generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and profound adenoid hypertrophy. It has been conservatively estimated that more than 100 distinct antigens are released by the normal digestion of cows' milk which evoke production of all antibody classes [This may explain why pasteurized, killed viruses are still antigenic and can still cause disease.
Here's more. A large prospective study from Norway was reported in the British Journal of Cancer 61 (3):456-9, March 1990. (Almost 16,000 individuals were followed for 11 and a half years). For most cancers there was no association between the tumour and milk ingestion. However, in lymphoma, there was a strong positive association. If one drank two glasses or more daily (or the equivalent in dairy products), the odds were 3.
4 times greater than in persons drinking less than one glass of developing a lymphoma. There are two other cow-related diseases that you should be aware of. At this time they are not known to be spread by the use of dairy products and are not known to involve man. The first is bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the second is the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). The first of these diseases, we hope, is confined to England and causes cavities in the animal's brain.
Sheep have long been known to suffer from a disease called scrapie. It seems to have been started by the feeding of contaminated sheep parts, especially brains, to the British cows. Now, use your good sense. Do cows seem like carnivores? Should they eat meat? This profit-motivated practice backfired and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or Mad Cow Disease, swept Britain. The disease literally causes dementia in the unfortunate animal and is 100 per cent incurable.
To date, over 100,000 cows have been incinerated in England in keeping with British law. Four hundred to 500 cows are reported as infected each month. The British public is concerned and has dropped its beef consumption by 25 per cent, while some 2,000 schools have stopped serving beef to children. Several farmers have developed a fatal disease syndrome that resembles both BSE and CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob- Disease).
But the British Veterinary Association says that transmission of BSE to humans is "remote." The USDA agrees that the British epidemic was due to the feeding of cattle with bonemeal or animal protein produced at rendering plants from the carcasses of scrapie-infected sheep. The have prohibited the importation of live cattle and zoo ruminants from Great Britain and claim that the disease does not exist in the United States.
However, there may be a problem. "Downer cows" are animals who arrive at auction yards or slaughter houses dead, trampled, lacerated, dehydrated, or too ill from viral or bacterial diseases to walk. Thus they are "down." If they cannot respond to electrical shocks by walking, they are dragged by chains to dumpsters and transported to rendering plants where, if they are not already dead, they are killed.
Even a "humane" death is usually denied them. They are then turned into protein food for animals as well as other preparations. Minks that have been fed this protein have developed a fatal encephalopathy that has some resemblance to BSE. Entire colonies of minks have been lost in this manner, particularly in Wisconsin. It is feared that the infective agent is a prion or slow virus possible obtained from the ill "downer cows.
" The British Medical Journal in an editorial whimsically entitled "How Now Mad Cow?" (BMJ vol. 304, 11 Apr. 1992:929- 30) describes cases of BSE in species not previously known to be affected, such as cats. They admit that produce contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy entered the human food chain in England between 1986 and 1989. They say. "The result of this experiment is awaited." As the incubation period can be up to three decades, wait we must.
The immunodeficency virus is seen in cattle in the United States and is more worrisome. Its structure is closely related to that of the human AIDS virus. At this time we do not know if exposure to the raw BIV proteins can cause the sera of humans to become positive for HIV. The extent of the virus among American herds is said to be "widespread". (The USDA refuses to inspect the meat and milk to see if antibodies to this retrovirus is present).
It also has no plans to quarantine the infected animals. As in the case of humans with AIDS, there is no cure for BIV in cows. Each day we consume beef and diary products from cows infected with these viruses and no scientific assurance exists that the products are safe. Eating raw beef (as in steak Tartare) strikes me as being very risky, especially after the Seattle E. coli deaths of 1993. A report in the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, October 1992, Vol.
56 pp.353-359 and another from the Russian literature, tell of a horrifying development. They report the first detection in human serum of the antibody to a bovine immunodeficiency virus protein. In addition to this disturbing report, is another from Russia telling us of the presence of virus proteins related to the bovine leukemia virus in 5 of 89 women with breast disease (Acta Virologica Feb. 1990 34(1): 19-26).
The implications of these developments are unknown at present. However, it is safe to assume that these animal viruses are unlikely to "stay" in the animal kingdom. OTHER CANCERS--DOES IT GET WORSE? Unfortunately it does. Ovarian cancer--a particularly nasty tumour--was associated with milk consumption by workers at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Drinking more than one glass of whole milk or equivalent daily gave a woman a 3.
1 times risk over non-milk users. They felt that the reduced fat milk products helped reduce the risk. This association has been made repeatedly by numerous investigators. Another important study, this from the Harvard Medical School, analyzed data from 27 countries mainly from the 1970s. Again a significant positive correlation is revealed between ovarian cancer and per capita milk consumption. These investigators feel that the lactose component of milk is the responsible fraction, and the digestion of this is facilitated by the persistence of the ability to digest the lactose (lactose persistence) - a little different emphasis, but the same conclusion.
This study was reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology 130 (5): 904-10 Nov. 1989. These articles come from two of the country's leading institutions, not the Rodale Press or Prevention Magazine. Even lung cancer has been associated with milk ingestion? The beverage habits of 569 lung cancer patients and 569 controls again at Roswell Park were studied in the International Journal of Cancer, April 15, 1989.
Persons drinking whole milk 3 or more times daily had a 2-fold increase in lung cancer risk when compared to those never drinking whole milk. For many years we have been watching the lung cancer rates for Japanese men who smoke far more than American or European men but who develop fewer lung cancers. Workers in this research area feel that the total fat intake is the difference. There are not many reports studying an association between milk ingestion and prostate cancer.
One such report though was of great interest. This is from the Roswell Park Memorial Institute and is found in Cancer 64 (3): 605-12, 1989. They analyzed the diets of 371 prostate cancer patients and comparable control subjects: Men who reported drinking three or more glasses of whole milk daily had a relative risk of 2.49 compared with men who reported never drinking whole milk the weight of the evidence appears to favour the hypothesis that animal fat is related to increased risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is now the most common cancer diagnosed in US men and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality. WELL, WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS? Is there any health reason at all for an adult human to drink cows' milk? It's hard for me to come up with even one good reason other than simple preference. But if you try hard, in my opinion, these would be the best two: milk is a source of calcium and it's a source of amino acids (proteins).
Let's look at the calcium first. Why are we concerned at all about calcium? Obviously, we intend it to build strong bones and protect us against osteoporosis. And no doubt about it, milk is loaded with calcium. But is it a good calcium source for humans? I think not. These are the reasons. Excessive amounts of dairy products actually interfere with calcium absorption. Secondly, the excess of protein that the milk provides is a major cause of the osteoporosis problem.
Dr. H egsted in England has been writing for years about the geographical distribution of osteoporosis. It seems that the countries with the highest intake of dairy products are invariably the countries with the most osteoporosis. He feels that milk is a cause of osteoporosis. Reasons to be given below. Numerous studies have shown that the level of calcium ingestion and especially calcium supplementation has no effect whatever on the development of osteoporosis.
The most important such article appeared recently in the British Journal of Medicine where the long arm of our dairy industry can't reach. Another study in the United States actually showed a worsening in calcium balance in post-menopausal women given three 8-ounce glasses of cows' milk per day. (Am. Journal of Clin. Nutrition, 1985). The effects of hormone, gender, weight bearing on the axial bones, and in particular protein intake, are critically important.
Another observation that may be helpful to our analysis is to note the absence of any recorded dietary deficiencies of calcium among people living on a natural diet without milk. For the key to the osteoporosis riddle, don�’t look at calcium, look at protein. Consider these two contrasting groups. Eskimos have an exceptionally high protein intake estimated at 25 percent of total calories. They also have a high calcium intake at 2,500 mg/day.
Their osteoporosis is among the worst in the world. The other instructive group are the Bantus of South Africa. They have a 12 percent protein diet, mostly p lant protein, and only 200 to 350 mg/day of calcium, about half our women's intake. The women have virtually no osteoporosis despite bearing six or more children and nursing them for prolonged periods! When African women immigrate to the United States, do they develop osteoporosis? The answer is yes, but not quite are much as Caucasian or Asian women.
Thus, there is a genetic difference that is modified by diet. To answer the obvious question, "Well, where do you get your calcium?" The answer is: "From exactly the same place the cow gets the calcium, from green things that grow in the ground," mainly from leafy vegetables. After all, elephants and rhinos develop their huge bones (after being weaned) by eating green leafy plants, so do horses. Carnivorous animals also do quite nicely without leafy plants.
It seems that all of earth's mammals do well if they live in harmony with their genetic programming and natural food. Only humans living an affluent life style have rampant osteoporosis. If animal references do not convince you, think of the several billion humans on this earth who have never seen cows' milk. Wouldn't you think osteoporosis would be prevalent in this huge group? The dairy people would suggest this but the truth is exactly the opposite.
They have far less than that seen in the countries where dairy products are commonly consumed. It is the subject of another paper, but the truly significant determinants of osteoporosis are grossly excessive protein intakes and lack of weight bearing on long bones, both taking place over decades. Hormones play a secondary, but not trivial role in women. Milk is a deterrent to good bone health. THE PROTEIN MYTH Remember when you were a kid and the adults all told you to "make sure you get plenty of good protein".
Protein was the nutritional "good guy�”" when I was young. And of course milk is fitted right in. As regards protein, milk is indeed a rich source of protein- -"liquid meat," remember? However that isn't necessarily what we need. In actual fact it is a source of difficulty. Nearly all Americans eat too much protein. For this information we rely on the most authoritative source that I am aware of.
This is the latest edition (1oth, 1989: 4th printing, Jan. 1992) of the Recommended Dietary Allowances produced by the National Research Council. Of interest, the current editor of this important work is Dr. Richard Havel of the University of California in San Francisco. First to be noted is that the recommended protein has been steadily revised downward in successive editions. The current recommendation is 0.
75 g/kilo/day for adults 19 through 51 years. This, of course, is only 45 grams per day for the mythical 60 kilogram adult. You should also know that the WHO estimated the need for protein in adults to by .6g/kilo per day. (All RDA's are calculated with large safety allowances in case you're the type that wants to add some more to "be sure.") You can "get by" on 28 to 30 grams a day if necessary! Now 45 grams a day is a tiny amount of protein.
That's an ounce and a half! Consider too, that the protein does not have to be animal protein. Vegetable protein is identical for all practical purposes and has no cholesterol and vastly less saturated fat. (Do not be misled by the antiquated belief that plant proteins must be carefully balanced to avoid deficiencies. This is not a realistic concern.) Therefore virtually all Americans, Canadians, British and European people are in a protein overloaded state.
This has serious consequences when maintained over decades. The problems are the already mentioned osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and kidney damage. There is good evidence that certain malignancies, chiefly colon and rectal, are related to excessive meat intake. Barry Brenner, an eminent renal physiologist was the first to fully point out the dangers of excess protein for the kidney tubule. The dangers of the fat and cholesterol are known to all.
Finally, you should know that the protein content of human milk is amount the lowest (0.9%) in mammals. IS THAT ALL OF THE TROUBLE? Sorry, there's more. Remember lactose? This is the principal carbohydrate of milk. It seems that nature provides new- borns with the enzymatic equipment to metabolize lactose, but this ability often extinguishes by age 4 or 5 years. What is the problem with lactose or milk sugar? It seems that it is a disaccharide which is too large to be absorbed into the blood stream without first being broken down into monosaccharides, namely galactose and glucose.
This requires the presence of an enzyme, lactase plus additional enzymes to break down the galactose into glucose. Let's think about his for a moment. Nature gives us the ability to metabolize lactose for a few years and then shuts off the mechanism. Is Mother Nature trying to tell us something? Clearly all infants must drink milk. The fact that so many adults cannot seems to be related to the tendency for nature to abandon mechanisms that are not needed.
At least half of the adult humans on this earth are lactose intolerant. It was not until the relatively recent introduction of dairy herding and the ability to "borrow" milk from another group of mammals that the survival advantage of preserving lactase (the enzyme that allows us to digest lactose) became evident. But why would it be advantageous to drink cows' milk? After all, most of the human beings in the history of the world did.
And further, why was it just the white or light skinned humans who retained this knack while the pigmented people tended to lose it? Some students of evolution feel that white skin is a fairly recent innovation, perhaps not more than 20,000 or 30,000 years old. It clearly has to do with the Northward migration of early man to cold and relatively sunless areas when skins and clothing became available.
Fair skin allows the production of Vitamin D from sunlight more readily than does dark skin. However, when only the face was exposed to sunlight that area of fair skin was insufficient to provide the vitamin D from sunlight. If dietary and sunlight sources were poorly available, the ability to use the abundant calcium in cows' milk would give a survival advantage to humans who could digest that milk.
This seems to be the only logical explanation for fair skinned humans having a high degree of lactose tolerance when compared to dark skinned people. How does this break down? Certain racial groups, namely blacks are up to 90% lactose intolerant as adults. Caucasians are 20 to 40% lactose intolerant. Orientals are midway between the above two groups. Diarrhea, gas and abdominal cramps are the results of substantial milk intake in such persons.
Most American Indians cannot tolerate milk. The milk industry admits that lactose intolerance plays intestinal havoc with as many as 50 million Americans. A lactose-intolerance industry has sprung up and had sales of $117 million in 1992 (Time May 17, 1993.) What if you are lactose-intolerant and lust after dairy products? Is all lost? Not at all. It seems that lactose is largely digested by bacteria and you will be able to enjoy your cheese despite lactose intolerance.
Yogurt is similar in this respect. Finally, and I could never have dreamed this up, geneticists want to splice genes to alter the composition of milk (Am J Clin Nutr 1993 Suppl 302s). One could quibble and say that milk is totally devoid of fiber content and that its habitual use will predispose to constipation and bowel disorders. The association with anemia and occult intestinal bleeding in infants is known to all physicians.
This is chiefly from its lack of iron and its irritating qualities for the intestinal mucosa. The pediatric literature abounds with articles describing irritated intestinal lining, bleeding, increased permeability as well as colic, diarrhea and vomiting in cows'milk-sensitive babies. The anemia gets a double push by loss of blood and iron as well as deficiency of iron in the cows' milk. Milk is also the leading cause of childhood allergy.
LOW FAT One additional topic: the matter of "low fat" milk. A common and sincere question is: "Well, low fat milk is OK, isn't it?" The answer to this question is that low fat milk isn't low fat. The term "low fat" is a marketing term used to gull the public. Low fat milk contains from 24 to 33% fat as calories! The 2% figure is also misleading. This refers to weight. They don't tell you that, by weight, the milk is 87% water! "Well, then, kill-joy surely you must approve of non-fat milk!" I hear this quite a bit.
(Another constant concern is: "What do you put on your cereal?") True, there is little or no fat, but now you have a relative overburden of protein and lactose. It there is something that we do not need more of it is another simple sugar-lactose, composed of galactose and glucose. Millions of Americans are lactose intolerant to boot, as noted. As for protein, as stated earlier, we live in a society that routinely ingests far more protein than we need.
It is a burden for our bodies, especially the kidneys, and a prominent cause of osteoporosis. Concerning the dry cereal issue, I would suggest soy milk, rice milk or almond milk as a healthy substitute. If you're still concerned about calcium, "Westsoy" is formulated to have the same calcium concentration as milk. SUMMARY To my thinking, there is only one valid reason to drink milk or use milk products.
That is just because we simply want to. Because we like it and because it has become a part of our culture. Because we have become accustomed to its taste and texture. Because we like the way it slides down our throat. Because our parents did the very best they could for us and provided milk in our earliest training and conditioning. They taught us to like it. And then probably the very best reason is ice cream! I've heard it described "to die for".
I had one patient who did exactly that. He had no obvious vices. He didn't smoke or drink, he didn�’t eat meat, his diet and lifestyle was nearly a perfectly health promoting one; but he had a passion. You guessed it, he loved rich ice cream. A pint of the richest would be a lean day's ration for him. On many occasions he would eat an entire quart - and yes there were some cookies and other pastries.
Good ice cream deserves this after all. He seemed to be in good health despite some expected "middle age spread" when he had a devastating stroke which left him paralyzed, miserable and helpless, and he had additional strokes and d ied several years later never having left a hospital or rehabilitation unit. Was he old? I don't think so. He was in his 50s. So don't drink milk for health. I am convinced on the weight of the scientific evidence that it does not "do a body good.
" Inclusion of milk will only reduce your diet's nutritional value and safety. Most of the people on this planet live very healthfully without cows' milk. You can too. It will be difficult to change; we've been conditioned since childhood to think of milk as "nature's most perfect food." I'll guarantee you that it will be safe, improve your health and it won't cost anything. What can you lose? (Article courtesty of Dr.
Kradjian and http://www.afpafitness.com/articles/MILKDOC.HTM)